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Old Apr 18, '12, 8:37 pm
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Isaiah45_9 Isaiah45_9 is offline
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Question Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL (1215) – Pope Innocent III
1. Confession of Faith (3rd paragraph, 1st sentence)
a. There is indeed one universal church of the faithful, outside of which nobody at all is saved, in which Jesus Christ is both priest and sacrifice.

UNAM SANCTAM (1302) — Papal Bull of Pope Boniface VIII
WE ARE COMPELLED, OUR FAITH URGING us, to believe and to hold—and we do firmly believe and simply confess—that there is one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, outside of which there is neither salvation nor remission of sins;

The Council of Florence (A.D. 1438-1445) From Cantate Domino — Papal Bull of Pope Eugene IV
It firmly believes, professes, and proclaims that those not living within the Catholic Church, not only pagans, but also Jews and heretics and schismatics cannot become participants in eternal life, but will depart “into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels” [Matt. 25:41], unless before the end of life the same have been added to the flock; and that the unity of the ecclesiastical body is so strong that only to those remaining in it are the sacraments of the Church of benefit for salvation, and do fastings, almsgiving, and other functions of piety and exercises of Christian service produce eternal reward, and that no one, whatever almsgiving he has practiced, even if he has shed blood for the name of Christ, can be saved, unless he has remained in the bosom and unity of the Catholic Church.

Vatican II Lumen Gentium 2:14 –
Basing itself upon Sacred Scripture and Tradition, it teaches that the Church, now sojourning on earth as an exile, is necessary for salvation. Christ, present to us in His Body, which is the Church, is the one Mediator and the unique way of salvation. In explicit terms He Himself affirmed the necessity of faith and baptism and thereby affirmed also the necessity of the Church, for through baptism as through a door men enter the Church. Whosoever, therefore, knowing that the Catholic Church was made necessary by Christ, would refuse to enter or to remain in it, could not be saved.

Ibid 2:15 (regarding protestants)- we can say that in some real way they are joined with us in the Holy Spirit, for to them too He gives His gifts and graces whereby He is operative among them with His sanctifying power.

Ibid 2:16 (regarding non-Christians)- Those also can attain to salvation who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ or His Church, yet sincerely seek God and moved by grace strive by their deeds to do His will as it is known to them through the dictates of conscience.

Vatican II - Gaudium et Spes:22 - All this holds true not only for Christians, but for all men of good will in whose hearts grace works in an unseen way. For, since Christ died for all men, and since the ultimate vocation of man is in fact one, and divine, we ought to believe that the Holy Spirit in a manner known only to God offers to every man the possibility of being associated with this paschal mystery.

Vatican II Ad Gentes, no. 7
- Therefore those men cannot be saved, who though aware that God, through Jesus Christ founded the Church as something necessary, still do not wish to enter into it, or to persevere in it.” Therefore though God in ways known to Himself can lead those inculpably ignorant of the Gospel to find that faith without which it is impossible to please Him (Heb. 11:6), yet a necessity lies upon the Church (1 Cor. 9:16), and at the same time a sacred duty, to preach the Gospel. And hence missionary activity today as always retains its power and necessity.

Pope Paul VI - We believe that the Church is necessary for salvation, because Christ, who is the sole mediator and way of salvation, renders Himself present for us in His body which is the Church. But the divine design of salvation embraces all men, and those who without fault on their part do not know the Gospel of Christ and His Church, but seek God sincerely, and under the influence of grace endeavor to do His will as recognized through the promptings of their conscience, they, in a number known only to God, can obtain salvation.

Dominus Iesus 6:22- If it is true that the followers of other religions can receive divine grace, it is also certain that objectively speaking they are in a gravely deficient situation in comparison with those who, in the Church, have the fullness of the means of salvation.

Summary of the Catechism’s teachings - Jesus died for all (CCC 1260), so that our sins may be forgiven and we could enter heaven, because nothing impure can enter heaven (Rev. 21:27). The Church believes He instituted the Sacraments to be given through the Church for the salvation of man (their effects, however, can be received through desire without the physical sacrament). God wishes that all should come to knowledge of the truth and be saved (1 Tim. 2:3-4), and the Church is God’s plan for salvation (CCC 780). Those who, by no fault of their own, do not know that the Catholic Church is the Church founded by Jesus Christ are not guilty for not having entered the Church (CCC 847). Those people can attain salvation by living according to the natural law, written on the hearts of all men (Rom. 2:14). God knows, because of His omniscience, what ignorant person would cooperate with His will if he was to be evangelized by the Catholic Church. He knows which people would desire baptism if they knew it were necessary. Even if a person is saved, but wasn’t a physical member of the Church (a Protestant, etc.), their salvation is still accomplished through the Church (CCC 846) and Jesus Christ’s redemptive death on the cross (Acts 4:12).

How do we reconcile the previous imperative Papal decrees with post Vatican II?
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"If anyone says that man can be justified before God by his own works, whether done by his own natural powers or by the teaching of the Law, without divine grace through Jesus Christ, let him be anathema" Council of Trent; Session 6; canon 1.

Last edited by Isaiah45_9; Apr 18, '12 at 8:39 pm. Reason: Paragraph formating
  #2  
Old Apr 18, '12, 8:39 pm
mitex mitex is offline
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Quote:
Originally Posted by Isaiah45_9 View Post
FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL (1215) – Pope Innocent III
1. Confession of Faith (3rd paragraph, 1st sentence)
a. There is indeed one universal church of the faithful, outside of which nobody at all is saved, in which Jesus Christ is both priest and sacrifice.
UNAM SANCTAM (1302) — Papal Bull of Pope Boniface VIII
WE ARE COMPELLED, OUR FAITH URGING us, to believe and to hold—and we do firmly believe and simply confess—that there is one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, outside of which there is neither salvation nor remission of sins;
The Council of Florence (A.D. 1438-1445) From Cantate Domino — Papal Bull of Pope Eugene IV
It firmly believes, professes, and proclaims that those not living within the Catholic Church, not only pagans, but also Jews and heretics and schismatics cannot become participants in eternal life, but will depart “into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels” [Matt. 25:41], unless before the end of life the same have been added to the flock; and that the unity of the ecclesiastical body is so strong that only to those remaining in it are the sacraments of the Church of benefit for salvation, and do fastings, almsgiving, and other functions of piety and exercises of Christian service produce eternal reward, and that no one, whatever almsgiving he has practiced, even if he has shed blood for the name of Christ, can be saved, unless he has remained in the bosom and unity of the Catholic Church.
Vatican II Lumen Gentium 2:14 –
Basing itself upon Sacred Scripture and Tradition, it teaches that the Church, now sojourning on earth as an exile, is necessary for salvation. Christ, present to us in His Body, which is the Church, is the one Mediator and the unique way of salvation. In explicit terms He Himself affirmed the necessity of faith and baptism and thereby affirmed also the necessity of the Church, for through baptism as through a door men enter the Church. Whosoever, therefore, knowing that the Catholic Church was made necessary by Christ, would refuse to enter or to remain in it, could not be saved.
Ibid 2:15 (regarding protestants)- we can say that in some real way they are joined with us in the Holy Spirit, for to them too He gives His gifts and graces whereby He is operative among them with His sanctifying power.
Ibid 2:16 (regarding non-Christians)- Those also can attain to salvation who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ or His Church, yet sincerely seek God and moved by grace strive by their deeds to do His will as it is known to them through the dictates of conscience.
Vatican II - Gaudium et Spes:22 - All this holds true not only for Christians, but for all men of good will in whose hearts grace works in an unseen way. For, since Christ died for all men, and since the ultimate vocation of man is in fact one, and divine, we ought to believe that the Holy Spirit in a manner known only to God offers to every man the possibility of being associated with this paschal mystery.
Vatican II Ad Gentes, no. 7 - Therefore those men cannot be saved, who though aware that God, through Jesus Christ founded the Church as something necessary, still do not wish to enter into it, or to persevere in it.” Therefore though God in ways known to Himself can lead those inculpably ignorant of the Gospel to find that faith without which it is impossible to please Him (Heb. 11:6), yet a necessity lies upon the Church (1 Cor. 9:16), and at the same time a sacred duty, to preach the Gospel. And hence missionary activity today as always retains its power and necessity.
Pope Paul VI - We believe that the Church is necessary for salvation, because Christ, who is the sole mediator and way of salvation, renders Himself present for us in His body which is the Church. But the divine design of salvation embraces all men, and those who without fault on their part do not know the Gospel of Christ and His Church, but seek God sincerely, and under the influence of grace endeavor to do His will as recognized through the promptings of their conscience, they, in a number known only to God, can obtain salvation.
Dominus Iesus 6:22- If it is true that the followers of other religions can receive divine grace, it is also certain that objectively speaking they are in a gravely deficient situation in comparison with those who, in the Church, have the fullness of the means of salvation.
Summary of the Catechism’s teachings - Jesus died for all (CCC 1260), so that our sins may be forgiven and we could enter heaven, because nothing impure can enter heaven (Rev. 21:27). The Church believes He instituted the Sacraments to be given through the Church for the salvation of man (their effects, however, can be received through desire without the physical sacrament). God wishes that all should come to knowledge of the truth and be saved (1 Tim. 2:3-4), and the Church is God’s plan for salvation (CCC 780). Those who, by no fault of their own, do not know that the Catholic Church is the Church founded by Jesus Christ are not guilty for not having entered the Church (CCC 847). Those people can attain salvation by living according to the natural law, written on the hearts of all men (Rom. 2:14). God knows, because of His omniscience, what ignorant person would cooperate with His will if he was to be evangelized by the Catholic Church. He knows which people would desire baptism if they knew it were necessary. Even if a person is saved, but wasn’t a physical member of the Church (a Protestant, etc.), their salvation is still accomplished through the Church (CCC 846) and Jesus Christ’s redemptive death on the cross (Acts 4:12).
Wow this is quite a mouthful

As an Evangelical protestant I am saved by my believe in Jesus Christ as my personal lord and savior. Nothing else matters. I have accepted his gift of everlasting life. Nothing will change that.
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Old Apr 18, '12, 8:40 pm
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

And which ones are considered infallible?

If not, why not?

Thanks.
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"If anyone says that man can be justified before God by his own works, whether done by his own natural powers or by the teaching of the Law, without divine grace through Jesus Christ, let him be anathema" Council of Trent; Session 6; canon 1.
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Old Apr 18, '12, 8:40 pm
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Quote:
Originally Posted by mitex View Post
Wow this is quite a mouthful

As an Evangelical protestant I am saved by my believe in Jesus Christ as my personal lord and savior. Nothing else matters. I have accepted his gift of everlasting life. Nothing will change that.
I was editing as you posted
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"If anyone says that man can be justified before God by his own works, whether done by his own natural powers or by the teaching of the Law, without divine grace through Jesus Christ, let him be anathema" Council of Trent; Session 6; canon 1.
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Old Apr 18, '12, 8:42 pm
mitex mitex is offline
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Quote:
Originally Posted by Isaiah45_9 View Post
And which ones are considered infallible?

If not, why not?

Thanks.
I don't believe in any of that. It's irreverent (to me). Now to a Catholic like yourself its not. But to me it is.
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Old Apr 18, '12, 9:23 pm
Nate13 Nate13 is offline
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

What do you find irreconcilable?
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Old Apr 18, '12, 9:54 pm
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Let's go after the poster, not the post... Make the poster mix his words and go after that instead of looking into what is being discussed...

Pope Innocent III, Pope Boniface VIII, Pope Eugene IV say there is no possible way.

Pope Paul VI, Post Vatican II opinions and the Catechism say there is a possibility of Salvation outside the church.

Do I really need to re-post my post in order to give an opportunity of attacking my "misunderstanding" instead of the obvious?

If I am asking, obviously I have questions about it.

Either there is salvation outside the Church or there isn't.
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"If anyone says that man can be justified before God by his own works, whether done by his own natural powers or by the teaching of the Law, without divine grace through Jesus Christ, let him be anathema" Council of Trent; Session 6; canon 1.
  #8  
Old Apr 18, '12, 9:56 pm
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Quote:
Originally Posted by mitex View Post
Wow this is quite a mouthful

As an Evangelical protestant I am saved by my believe in Jesus Christ as my personal lord and savior. Nothing else matters. I have accepted his gift of everlasting life. Nothing will change that.
Not enough. At least, not by a Biblical argument.



Faith alone does not save. People who say they believe but do not try to live as Christlike of a life as possible are not anything but hypocrites.
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Old Apr 18, '12, 10:23 pm
Gorgias Gorgias is offline
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Of course, as Catholics, we say that conciliar expressions are free from error.

So, then, how can we synthesize these various historical statements, if we wish to affirm this belief?

It seems that Florence is the only one that provides us with some difficulties. After all, the other references leave room for the interpretation that salvation comes through the Church, and outside the salvation that is of Christ, and which subsists in the Church, there is no salvation. (However, this doesn't necessarily imply that this salvation is efficacious only for those within the embrace of the Church -- just that the genesis of the salvation is from the Church.)

However, Florence seems to make a different sort of argument: it seems to say that salvation is only for people who are within the boundaries of the Church. On the face of it, that seems a rather strong, unrefutable statement; however, it would seem that this isn't as severe a statement as it appears at first blush. First, the statement has an exception: "unless they are joined to the catholic church before the end of their lives". The way in which a person outside the Church might be joined to it is not described; to presume that baptism is the only thing that the council had in mind is a bit presumptuous. Second, this assertion, taken strictly, seems at odds with the Scriptural notion that God desires all souls to be saved. What, then, of those "pagans" to whom the Gospel had never been preached? If Florence is to be interpreted strictly, then, Scripture is lying, since this implies that although God wishes for all to be saved, God nonetheless is OK with sending people to Hell who, through no fault of their own, never experienced the Gospel message. (Earlier theologians asserted that this argument would only hold once the Gospel message had been effectively spread to the whole world; see Sullivan's "Salvation Outside the Church?" for more information.)

Third, it is important to note that all councils have a context; their pronouncements must always be considered in light of that context. The context of the council of Florence was increasing tensions between Eastern and Western Christianity; moreover, this particular quotation was in the context of a Bull of Union with the Copts. With this in mind, it is reasonable to assert that the statements of this bull apply to those within the region of the Coptic Church (i.e., Egypt) and not to all inhabitants of the world. Fourth, at the conclusion of the sentence in question, we find the following quote: "that nobody can be saved... unless he has persevered in the bosom and the unity of the catholic church". In other words, it would seem that this sentence is aimed at those who are already within "the bosom... of the catholic church", and is directed to the question of whether they 'persevere' in that status. That is, it is not unreasonable to suggest that the laundry list of "pagans, Jews, heretics, and schismatics" that are mentioned, are people who had been Christians, but who failed to "persever(e) in the bosom and the unity of the catholic church".

Regardless, the practical upshot here is that, if we are to assume that all conciliar declarations are valid, then we have to understand Florence in a way that fits with its context and allows Vatican II statements to express the truth, too...
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Old Apr 19, '12, 5:28 am
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Quote:
Originally Posted by Gorgias View Post
Of course, as Catholics, we say that conciliar expressions are f..................
What he said.
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Old Apr 19, '12, 9:31 am
Nita Nita is offline
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

There is another thread (re this topic) going on here on the Apologetics forum:
http://forums.catholic.com/showthread.php?t=666435

I’ll repeat some quotes I gave there that were given by Pope Pius IX, more than 100 years before Pope Paul VI and Vatican II.
Denzinger #1647 (Pope Pius IX "Singulari quadem", Dec. 9, 1854)
"For, it must be held by faith that outside the Apostolic Roman Church, no one can be saved; that this is the only ark of salvation; that he who shall not have entered therein will perish in the flood; but, on the other hand, it is necessary to hold for certain that they who labor in ignorance of the true religion, if this ignorance is invincible, are not stained by any guilt in this matter in the eyes of God. ...

Denzinger #1677 (Pius IX encyclical, "Quanto conficiamur moerore", August 10, 1863)
"...It is known to Us and to you that they who labor in invincible ignorance of our most holy religion and who, zealously keeping the natural law and its precepts engraved in the hearts of all by God, and being ready to obey God, live an honest and upright life, can, by the operating power of divine light and grace, attain eternal life, since God who clearly beholds, searches, and knows the minds, souls, thoughts, and habits of all men, because of His great goodness and mercy, will by no means suffer anyone to be punished with eternal torment who has not the guilt of deliberate sin. But, the Catholic dogma that no one can be saved outside the Catholic Church is well-known; and also that those who are obstinate toward the authority and definitions of the same Church..."

These quotes can be accessed on the following site: http://catecheticsonline.com/?p=184
At least as early as the Arian heresy (300's AD), Baptism outside the Catholic Church has been recognized as valid as long as it has been done in the form of the Church -- that is, in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. A valid baptism means that the stain of original sin has been removed thru the infusion of the life of sanctifying grace. Therefore that person would be saved as long as they do not lose that life of grace thru mortal sin and die in that state.
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Old Apr 19, '12, 9:45 am
Nita Nita is offline
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

For those not familiar with what is meant when people refer to "Denzinger":

It refers to a volume titled "The Sources of Catholic Dogma" which was put together by a man named Henry Denzinger. It is a collection of official Church documents. It is an excellent resource book to add to your library. It can of course be accessed online at the site I provided above - if you don't mind doing your reading on a computer screen
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Old Apr 19, '12, 10:14 am
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Thanks for your replies and help.

Here's where my logical brain intercepts the situation (pasted from another post of mine):


There are 4 kinds of categorical propositions:

Universal Affirmative
Universal Negative
Particular Affirmative
Particular Negative

The 1st three councils I quoted are in the Universal Negative. No particularity was entered.

The rest of the quotes are Particular Negative and the particularities are presented.

If, for example, I say:
All birds are winged creatures.
That is a universal affirmative regarding birds. However, bats are also winged creatures. The fact that I am universally affirming that birds are winged creatures does not deny the existence of other winged creatures.

However, if I say:

Only birds are winged creatures.

My universal affirmation denies the possibility of other winged creatures.

If we look at this statement:
"...there is one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, outside of which there is neither salvation nor remission of sins;"

The statement clearly says that there is no possibility of salvation nor remission of sins outside the one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. It leaves no room for particulars.

Now if we look at this statement:
"We believe that the Church is necessary for salvation, because Christ, who is the sole mediator and way of salvation, renders Himself present for us in His body which is the Church. But the divine design of salvation embraces all men, and those who without fault on their part do not know the Gospel of Christ and His Church, but seek God sincerely, and under the influence of grace endeavor to do His will as recognized through the promptings of their conscience, they, in a number known only to God, can obtain salvation".

Particulars are clearly given.

Further, in Dominus Iesus, then Cardinal Ratzinger further expands on Pope Paul VI statement.

I don't think it is reasonably possible to reconcile the universal negative statements with the particular negative statements, more so when the particular negative statements include particular affirmative proposals.

Both cannot be right. Meaning one of them is wrong. Thus fallible.
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"If anyone says that man can be justified before God by his own works, whether done by his own natural powers or by the teaching of the Law, without divine grace through Jesus Christ, let him be anathema" Council of Trent; Session 6; canon 1.
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Old Apr 19, '12, 11:32 am
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Quote:
Originally Posted by Isaiah45_9 View Post
Thanks for your replies and help.

Here's where my logical brain intercepts the situation (pasted from another post of mine):


There are 4 kinds of categorical propositions:

Universal Affirmative
Universal Negative
Particular Affirmative
Particular Negative

The 1st three councils I quoted are in the Universal Negative. No particularity was entered.

:
Let me preface my points by saying a strict understanding "No Salvation Outside the Church" is acceptable to the Church at present, and there are 4 religious communities that hold this and have been approved of by the CDF.

Very good points above. But I don't see them as irreconcilable, The hierarchy of understanding must be applied. The problem with most people who approach this subject is that they don't study it very deeply, so I commend you all for approaching the subject at all.

For example Gorgias is trying to interpret dogmatic statements, in light of fallible statements, and if not fallible, only on a universal magisterial nature, which is of a lesser authority and open to interpretation IN LIGHT OF DOGMATIC STATEMENTS.

We need to start with the dogmatic statements and see all other teachings on the matter in light of these statements. To do it otherwise would subject infallible statements to fallible or lower authority and would turn the whole idea of dogmatic definition upside down, with no logical outcome.


Gorgias wrote:
Quote:
The way in which a person outside the Church might be joined to it is not described; to presume that baptism is the only thing that the council had in mind is a bit presumptuous
Anyone who has studied Church theology would know it isn't presumptuous to say that only the Sacrament of Baptism makes one a member of the Church. This is the perennial teaching of the Church.

St. Ambrose, (4th Century) Bishop and Doctor of the Church:
“… for in the Christian what comes first is faith. And at Rome for this reason those who have been baptized are called the faithful (fideles)… it was because you believed that you received Baptism.”
[The Sunday Sermons of the Great Fathers, Vol. 4, p. 5]



The council of Florence taught this too.

Pope Eugene IV, The Council of Florence, “Exultate Deo,” Nov. 22, 1439:

“Holy baptism, which is the gateway to the spiritual life, holds the first place among all the sacraments; through it we are made members of Christ and of the body of the Church. And since death entered the universe through the first man, ‘unless we are born again of water and the Spirit, we cannot,’ as the Truth says, ‘enter into the kingdom of heaven’ [John 3:5]. The matter of this sacrament is real and natural water.” (DZ 696)

Pius XII also taught only Baptism makes one a member:
Pope Pius XII, Mystici Corporis (# 22), June 29, 1943:
“Actually only those are to be numbered among the members of the Church who have received the laver of regeneration [baptism] and profess the true faith.”[Denzinger 2286]

Now for Vat II
I think many if not most of those at Vatican II didn't have a good understanding of the necessity of being in the Church for salvation. But we only are obliged by what they wrote not their personal beliefs, and the Holy spirit kept them from saying there is salvation outside the Church.

I see no problem with Vat II if seen in light of what has already been defined. Yes people can be saved who are not Catholic or members of His Church BUT not where they are! Grace is leading them to Faith and membership by the Sacrament of Baptism.

If the Church said only Catholics can be saved then people may think there is no grace for those outside the Church. There is grace for them but only actual/helping grace NOT Sanctifying Grace.

Sanctifying Grace is only available with-in the Church. Those who die outside the Church go to hell--some to Limbo some to torment. They will not be punished for NOT joining the Church, if they were invincibly ignorant of it, but for other sins which they cannot avoid without the sacraments.

All are born in Original Sin, that alone is enough to exclude us from heaven, if only to Limbo--natural paradise but no hope of the Beatific Vision.

Remember salvation isn't a RIGHT it is a GIFT. Those who seek it find it to those who knock it is open to them.

If you want to be specific in your problems with Vat II. I will try to help as time for me permits.
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Old Apr 19, '12, 11:44 am
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Default Re: Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus (There is no salvation outside the Church)

Quote:
Originally Posted by Isaiah45_9 View Post
If we look at this statement:
"...there is one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, outside of which there is neither salvation nor remission of sins;"

The statement clearly says that there is no possibility of salvation nor remission of sins outside the one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. It leaves no room for particulars.....:
What appears obvious to me, and hopefully it will to you also, is that it is critical to understand correctly who is all considered to be a part (wholly or partially) of the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church. To think that only those who are baptized, registered, and practicing members of the institutional Roman Catholic Church, under the leadership of the Pope, are encompassed in the designation "Catholic Church" would be in error. This is not what the Church means. (Eg. earlier I gave the example of acceptance of baptism by Arian heretics in the 300's.) Pope Pius IX would have been contradicting himself right within the same sentence! It is obvious that Church teaching does not mean membership in the Church in such an exclusive way.
Consider among other things that the Roman Catholic Church accepts the apostolic succession and sacraments of some of the Orthodox Churches.

The Catholic Church teaches that the Church is the Mystical Body of Christ. Therefore, whoever is joined to Our Lord in His Mystical Body in any way, is a part/member of His Body/Church.
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