If you are validly baptized in the Trinitarian formula, you are part of the Church (although in imperfect communion, as others have noted). The teaching Extra ecclesiam nulla salus, “no one outside the Church is saved” causes quite a stir. But when you read what the Church has to say about who is in the Church, the Body of Christ, it is not quite exclusive as some (many who are Catholic) might imagine.
Some of the applicable teachings from the Catechism:
Who belongs to the Catholic Church?
836 "All men are called to this catholic unity of the People of God. . . . And to it, in different ways, belong or are ordered: the Catholic faithful, others who believe in Christ, and finally all mankind, called by God’s grace to salvation."320
837 “Fully incorporated into the society of the Church are those who, possessing the Spirit of Christ, accept all the means of salvation given to the Church together with her entire organization, and who - by the bonds constituted by the profession of faith, the sacraments, ecclesiastical government, and communion - are joined in the visible structure of the Church of Christ, who rules her through the Supreme Pontiff and the bishops. Even though incorporated into the Church, one who does not however persevere in charity is not saved. He remains indeed in the bosom of the Church, but ‘in body’ not ‘in heart.’”
838 "The Church knows that she is joined in many ways to the baptized who are honored by the name of Christian, but do not profess the Catholic faith in its entirety or have not preserved unity or communion under the successor of Peter."322 Those "who believe in Christ and have been properly baptized are put in a certain, although imperfect, communion with the Catholic Church."323 With the Orthodox Churches, this communion is so profound “that it lacks little to attain the fullness that would permit a common celebration of the Lord’s Eucharist.”
I would add that most Catholics I know view being “saved” as an ongoing process and that final salvation doesn’t occur until we are judged. We do acknowledge that we are “saved” at the moment we are born again in water and Spirit (BAPTISM), but that we are also being saved through sanctification of the Spirit (other Sacraments,faith, repentance, etc), we hope to be saved and we are working out salvation in fear and trembling. We know that we can lose the gift of salvation through our own decision to sin and not repent. So, when you ask “Am I saved”, you will get a broad spectrum of answers. My answer is that you were saved when you were validly baptized, but I have no idea whether or not you have since severed your relationship with God through mortal sin (1 John 5:17). I have no idea whether you are repentant of your sins. I have know idea if you believe in Jesus (although of course, I will accept your statement that you do-- I’m just saying that these are things that only you and God really know)
I will also tell you that some Catholics believe that only “formal” Catholics-- baptized into the Catholic Church-- are saved because they take “Extra ecclesiam nulla salus” out of context. This is called Feeneyism- it is heresy that has been condemned by the Church. This is based on the errant teaching of Fr. Feeney who was excommunicated in the early 50s for persistent disobedience to the Church. I STILL see echoes of his interpretation of Extra ecclesiam nulal salus on these boards. Very unfortunate …