Catholic thought has recognized for centuries that the legitimacy of government, while ordained by God, is derived from the consent of the governed. The modern state, a territory monopoly of violence, derives “legitimacy” not through consent but through force. Taxes are imposed on populations of millions of people without any consent, and spent without any choice. If it is immoral for a private individual to commit a sin, it is immoral for an institution that calls itself government to impose taxes without consent. This idea is present in historical Catholic thought, such as that of Suarez.
It would seem that anarchism or voluntarism would be the only morally acceptable political philosophy. In the absence of a central state, free, voluntary, and polycentric governments would spring up in their places, promoting the common good and never imposing upon individuals. Property rights, the most sacred right other than the right to life, would no longer be systematically violated by the states.
God does not impose His will upon us nor force us to love Him. What gives men the right band together to subjugate lower classes through the state? Nor is it the duty of the Christian to force and control.
The state is not the same thing as government. Read “Our Enemy The State” by Albert Jay Nock.
Anarchism is not the absence of government or order, anarchism is voluntarism. It is the notions of subsidiarity and solidarity taken to their most radical extremes. The modern state is a moral abomination that no Catholic should support. True, the Church gives directives on what states should do, and insofar as they exist their actions should be directed towards promoting the common good (which usually means leaving things alone or returning stolen money) and no interference otherwise.
Every function we consider a state function can be reproduced in a free market setting, read Murray Rothbard and David Friedman. These things do not even have to have a “capitalistic” character to them, many things can be done in a “socialistic” way if people want to, indeed, most anarchists are socialists and communists but I prefer a market based approach given the scarcity of resources and the natural right to property.
The crux of the argument is recognizing the dignity of every human person and the fact that no other person has the right to subjugate persons as means to ends, which is what states do.
To make my point clear, again: Government, social institutions that promote the common good, must exist in some way because of human nature. All the necessary tasks of government can be performed without coercion or compulsion, except of course, for purposes such as defense of people and property, and imprisonment. States, anti-social institutions that absorb and warp government into a coercive, monopolistic creature, cannot be supported by anyone with a conscience.