Are the words “Hebrews” and “Jews” interchangeable? Do they both refer the Chosen Ones of Israel, from the 12 tribes? Or does “Jews” refer only to those from the tribe of Judah?
Yes they are interchangeable and both are terms used to describe the same group of people. Hebrews seems to me to have been the term used to describe Israelites living in Israel to describe themselves to outsiders in a way that outsiders would understand(it means those who have come from “the other side” of the river, the Euphrates). However the classical world including Josephus gave them the synonym “Jews” which is most widely used today.
In any case both of them refer to the same group of people according to the catholic on line encyclopedia(newadvent.org/cathen/08193a.htm). They both refer to “the decendants of Jacob”(and therefore the 12 tribes) and they are synonymous with the original name for the people, The Israelites.