[quote=Ghosty]This is actually a part of Christian teaching that hasn’t been touched on much until very recently. Read Romans 11 for the full detail on it. It wasn’t until modern times that the Catholic Church has really begun “unpacking” that particular chapter, so you only see this kind of terminology coming up recently.
Prior to modern times it was popular (though non-Doctrinal) thought among Catholics to view Christians as the replacement of Jews, rather than the fulfillment, or an add-on to Judaism. Just a cursory reading of Romans 11, however, will show that this view is untenable. Entire volumes could be written on WHY this aspect of Scripture was so over-looked, but it’s been getting a lot of attention at the hands of John Paul II and Ratzinger/Benedict XVI. It is largely based on this “back to Scripture” approach that the modern reaching out to Jews by Catholics has been theologically possible, and it’s a fascinating study in and of itself.
In short, you won’t find much old stuff on this, even though the roots of it, and even the direct teaching of it by Paul, goes back to the time of the Apostles. There aren’t any doctrines about it, but Paul’s words are very clear. This is actually a prime candidate as the kind of thing that the Church might come out and make a doctrinal statement on, given the teaching in Scripture and the misapplication and misunderstanding of it throughout history.
For now I’ll just say read Romans 11; it will answer this question very handily without even needing a lot of explaination. Ironically it’s some of the most blunt and straightforward writing in all of Scripture, IMO.
Many would say that at the last supper Christ was speaking symbolically about the Eucharist. That he intended it to be a “memorial” until he returns. They would also say that it is “some of the most blunt and straightforward writing in all of Scripture”.
My point is that we need to need careful here. There is a heretical theology out there that teaches that Christians illegitimately "replaced " the Jews as God’s people. That when Christ returns He will be coming for Israel (the actual secular state) and for the Jews. Also He will be coming to “punish” Christians (most especially the Church) for “persecuting” His true chosen people (the Jews).
I know someone who has joined this sect. They believe Christ was the messiah (a great guy) but not God made flesh. They believe that the Israeli’s are God’s covenant people. They believe that Christians can be ‘saved" only by being "grafted’ into this “Israel”.
Some points I would like to make:
The Jews living today are no more Jewish than I born and raised in the U.S.A am still British. Israel as a people have been dispersed into the world (i.e. the gentiles), and though 14 million people around the world identify themselves as ethnically Jewish (Judah), I would say that (1) they don’t practice the faith that God laid down in the covenant, so they seem to have
some answering to do; And (2) their ethnicity is VERY likely, in all or virtually all cases to have been mixed with gentiles in marriages over the millennia.
For instance, If Christ is coming back to receive covenantal Jews, why aren’t they living the covenant? Where are all the rituals? Where are the sacrifices? Why not even talk about rebuilding the temple? After all, they have the land. Why are the large majority of the ethnically Jewish people living today either secularists or secular atheists?
The Church is the bride of Christ not some secular state. All of Israel (i.e. those who are worthy
of heaven) will be saved through the Church, through Jesus Christ.