Bishop and ArchBishop

What are the powers of a Bishop? How are they appointed? How Large does a place have to be (how many Parishaneers is needed) for it to become a Diocese?

What are the powers of an ArchBishop? How are they appointed? How Large does a place have to be (How many Parishaneers is need) for it to become a Diocese?

What are the diffrences between a Bishop and an ArchBishop?

An archbishop or metropolitan, in the present sense of the term, is a bishop who governs a diocese strictly his own, while he presides at the same time over the bishops of a well-defined district composed of simple dioceses but not of provinces. Hence none of these subordinate bishops rule over others. These bishops are called the suffragans or comprovincials. The archbishop’s own diocese is the archdiocese.

As one possessing the fullness of the priesthood, a bishop has all of the powers of a priest plus the power to confer the Sacrament of Holy Orders as well as to confer the Sacrament of Confirmation as the ordinary minister.

As the local ordinary, the (arch)bishop in charge of a (arch)diocese has jurisdiction over the souls of ever person in the diocese, whether Catholic, non-Catholic, human or angelic (that last part pertains to exorcism; since only the bishop has jurisdiction, only he or his designee may perform an exorcism according to the Rites of the Church). The powers of jurisdiction are also referred to as the quinquennial faculties and are given/renewed by the Pope when the bishop makes his every-five-year visit to the Holy Father.

There are not many places where there is no Diocese in the Western world nowadays, so a new diocese would be formed by splitting a current one into 2. In other parts of the world, a mission is established, then an Apostolic Prefecture then an Apostolic Vicariate, then a diocese is erected. There are few of these missionary-style vicariates left in the world, and they are mostly in Africa, however until the Restoration of the Hierarchy in 1850, the UK had them!

A metropolitan receives the pallium as a mark of his role from the Pope. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallium

While only a bishop can ordain to the diaconate or priesthood, the bishop also has the power to consecrate {ordain} a new bishop, /Bishops are chosen by the Holy Father.
Deacon Ed B

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