Can anyone recommend a good book about the history of the papacy that is reasonably favorable to the Church’s position?
Not on the papacy per se but try Triumph by H.W. Crocker. It covers 2000 years of Church history and hence has a lot about the papacy. It is very readable.
Pope Fiction by Patrick Madrid is a thorough look at many of the common attacks on the pope, many of which are the result of faulty history.
This book is not an overview of the history of the papacy per se, but you definitely learn a lot of history along the way.