Canon 1364 states that apostates and heretics are excommunicated lata sententia. It is clear from canons 1321-1330 that those unaware of their heresy are not excommunicated, so it seems that those excommunicated are those who are aware of their heresy and remain in it. I have two questions: is someone excommunicated only if their heresy is made public, or does being privately heretical suffice? Second, how is one absolved from this excommunication. Some excommunications, such as throwing away the Sacred Host, can only be absolved by the Apostolic See. I also understand (though I could be mistaken) that abortion does not require any special act outside the Sacrament of Penance. Does anyone know anything about this particular offense?
Why would someone’s sin (if it carries automatic excommunication) have to be made public for excommunication to be valid. That does not make sense. If someone knows they have committed a sin that carries an automatic excommunication then they are excommunicated.
Who can lift the excommunication depends on the offense. Some offenses like abortion for example have been delegated to priests and so a person can have this lifted and be absolved at the Sacrament of Reconciliation.
My question was when someone is excommunicated over any heresy or only public heresy, and how that particular excommunication is resolved, not sin and excommunication in general.
No one knows? It seems rather important to know with respect to bringing ex-Catholics back into the church :shrug: