Official dogma can be put in two groups: fallible and infallible. All Catholic teaching comes from either divinely inspired Scripture or divinely inspired Tradition–these are seen as infallible. Interestingly, what either of these actually were was somewhat ambiguous until the Church (under divine inspiration) conclusively defined both the canon of Tradition and the canon of the Bible–this process was finished and closed in the late 300’s, and they have not changed at all since then. So crucial Catholic dogma was exactly the same in the year 400 as it was in 1000-1100, and as it is today. All of it can be found, as suggested, in the Catechism.
Infallible teachings are things that God has revealed to man. Based on your post, what you might be looking for are the Church’s fallible teachings–things that man has come up with himself (perhaps with God’s guidance)–because these have changed throughout the course of Church history. Nothing truly new can come from fallible teaching, at most it will simply expound upon the infallible. For example, that some parts of the liturgy are said in Latin is a fallible teaching. Finding dates and origins for all of these would be a large and difficult task, but as mentioned, some are contained in the Catechism (not, however, with dates). Unfortunately, I would be extremely surprised if there was any one resource that contained all of them.
Hope this helped.