A few corrections necessary to previous posts. Copernicus was not a physicist, he was a mathematician. He was not even an astronomer proper but used the measurements of Ptolemy. He was aware of the hermetic heliocentrism rampant at the time and gave it mathematical credence, that is, the maths invilved in the circles etc. While he knew the system was contrary to the Scriptures he gave his book to Protestants to publish. Osiander put a preface to De Rev… that said this saystem was for mathematical purposes only and that only God knows the actual true order. Osiander used the word ‘hypothesis’ but it meant only as a mathematical tool not a statement of truth. Thus the term ‘hypothesis’ was established on this matter forever. He died before he could say differently so was not censured. After the fixed sun was defined as heresy his reputation suffered somewhat until churchmen accepted the heresy as orthodox.
Kepler was a Protestant, deep into hermetic cosmology. He poached all the data from Tycho de Brahe after that great astronomer dies ‘mysteriously’. Kepler guessed, yes guessed, yes guessed, that orbits were ellipses. It was a compromise once de Brahe’s measurements showed orbits were not circles. He had a tragic life of sickness, success, poverty and family tragedy in his life.
Galileo was a physicist yes. He measured curves from balls dropping on boards. He was an asatronomer, just as hundreds were at that time of the invention of the telescope in Holland. He was a Catholic, but as a ‘good’ Catholic, no. He had a mistress, three children out of wedlock with her. He insisted he had proven heliocentrism but the dogs in the street knew he did not. The Bible was the only thing that blocked his way to the ‘greatest discovery ever’. So he went about the business of telling churchmen how they should reinterpret the Bible to his way of thinking. He got deep into exegesis and hermeneutics but came up against one of the greatest theologians who ever lived, Cardinal Bellarmine.
Galileo, according to 1000 books etc., was a perjurer. He swore to God at his trial that he no longer held the heresy but these 1000 accounts say he died a heliocentrist. Thus he died a perjurer because saying something false when taking an oath is perjury. Dakota regurges the usual version used today by Church and State, given they both are Copernican now. He says stellar parallax was proof for Galileo. Well that worked for the propaganda, but any first year physicist student knows today that you cannot get proofs for H because of the phenomenon called relativity. Parallax has two explanations in true physics, a h one and a G one.
So, if a ‘good’ Catholic is one who lived in sin, totally rejected Church teaching, and died a perjurer, then he was a ‘good’ Catholic.
Lemaitre and Schroedinger carried on the work of the other three, consigning the Bible to the rrealm of fairy tales and convinced popes to put the Catholic faith at the mercy of scientific theories.