I am trying to understand CCC 2088 and 2089, but they just seem so muddled to me. I’m hoping someone else is able to figure out what’s going on:
2088 The first commandment requires us to nourish and protect our faith with prudence and vigilance, and to reject everything that is opposed to it. There are various ways of sinning against faith:
Voluntary doubt about the faith disregards or refuses to hold as true what God has revealed and the Church proposes for belief. Involuntary doubt refers to hesitation in believing, difficulty in overcoming objections connected with the faith, or also anxiety aroused by its obscurity. If deliberately cultivated doubt can lead to spiritual blindness.
2089 Incredulity is the neglect of revealed truth or the willful refusal to assent to it. "Heresy is the obstinate post-baptismal denial of some truth which must be believed with divine and catholic faith, or it is likewise an obstinate doubt concerning the same; apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Roman Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him."11
I can’t quite see the difference between these different sins. Voluntary doubt sounds to me exactly like incredulity. I can’t quite distinguish heresy from doubt, at least according to the definitions given here. I am also unsure how to look at involuntary doubt as a sin against faith, considering that sin by its very natury must be voluntary.
Peace and God bless