continued from my other post.
References Related to the Non-Genetic Basis of Homosexuality:
[size=2][FONT=Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif]Bailey, J.M., Dunne, M.P., & Martin, N.G. (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample.* Journal of Personality and Social Psychology*[/size], 78 (3), 524-536. Bailey is a well-known pro-genetic-basis-for-homosexuality researcher, but as a result of this study Bailey and colleagues wrote, “ours did not provide statistically significant support for the importance of genetic factors for [sexual orientation].”
Bearman, P.S., & Bruckner, H. (2002). Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction. American Journal of Sociology, 107 (5), 1179-1205. Bearman and Bruckner found no support for a genetic influence, but did find support for a socialization model of male homosexuality.
Council for Responsible Genetics (2006). “Brief on Sexual Orientation and Genetic Determinism.” Available on the web at www.gene-watch.org. “… to date, no conclusive link between genetics and sexual orientation has been found.”
Mustanski, B.S., Dupree, M.G., Nievergelt, C.M., Bocklandt, S., Schork, N.J., & Hamer, D.H. (2005). A genomewide scan of male sexual orientation. Human Genetics, 116 (4), 272-278. Mustanski and colleagues, including Dean Hamer (another well-known** pro-genetic-basis-for-homosexuality researcher**), found no part of the entire human genome linked in any statistically significant way to male homosexuality.
Whitehead, N.E. & Whitehead, B. (originally published in 1999). “My Genes Made Me Do It! - A Scientific Look at Sexual Orientation.” Constantly updated and available on the web at www.mygenes.co.nz. Dr. Neil Whitehead is a research scientist who has authored over 120 published scientific papers. This current book is based on a comprehensive 13 year review of over 10,000 scientific papers and publications on homosexuality. Whitehead writes, "Geneticists, anthropologists, developmental psychologists, sociologists, endocrinologists, neuroanatomists, medical researchers into gender, and twin study researchers are in broad agreement about the role of genetics in homosexuality. Genes don’t make you do it. There is no genetic determinism, and genetic influence at most is minor."
Reference for a General Understanding of Behavioral Genetics:
Baker, C. (2004). “Behavioral Genetics.” Available on the web at www.aaas.org. Washington D.C: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The AAAS also publishes the journal Science. "So when next you see an article that proclaims, “Gene for [insert human behavior here] discovered,” read it with a critical eye… The pervasive role of genes in behavior does not mean what it is commonly misunderstood to mean. It does not mean that a gene or even several genes can make you act in any particular way. It does not mean that a behavior can “pass down through the genes.” Such claims are not accepted in behavioral genetics… So while we do inherit our genes, we do not inherit behavior traits in any fixed sense. The effect of our given set of genes on our behavior is entirely dependent upon the context of our life as it unfolds day to day[/FONT][/size]