Early Church Fathers – On the Filioque
The Western Church commonly uses a version of the Nicene Creed which has the Latin word filioque (“and the Son”) added after the declaration that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father. Scripture reveals that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. The external relationships of the persons of the Trinity mirror their internal relationships. Just as the Father externally sent the Son into the world in time, the Son internally proceeds from the Father in the Trinity. Just as the Spirit is externally sent into the world by the Son as well as the Father (John 15:26, Acts 2:33), he internally proceeds from both Father and Son in the Trinity. This is why the Spirit is referred to as the Spirit of the Son (Gal. 4:6) and not just the Spirit of the Father (Matt. 10:20).
The quotations below show that the early Church Fathers, both Latin and Greek, recognized the same thing, saying that the Spirit proceeds “from the Father and the Son” or “from the Father through the Son.”
I believe the Spirit to proceed from no other source than from the Father through the Son (Against Praxeas 4:1 [AD 218]).
We believe, however, that there are three persons: the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit; and we believe none to be unbegotten except the Father. We admit, as more pious and true, that all things were produced through the Word, and that the Holy Spirit is the most excellent and the first in order of all that was produced by the Father through Christ (Commentaries on John 2:6 [AD 229]).
Maximus the Confessor
By nature the Holy Spirit in his being takes substantially his origin from the Father through the Son who is begotten [Questions to Thalassium 63 (AD 254)].
St. Gregory Thaumaturgus (the Wonderworker)
And there is one Holy Spirit, having his subsistence from God, and being made manifest by the Son; perfect image of the perfect; life, the cause of the living; holy fount; sanctity, the supplier of sanctification; in whom is manifested God the Father, who is above all and in all, and God the Son who is through all. Perfect Trinity, in glory and eternity and sovereignty neither divided nor estranged (Confession of Faith [AD 265]).
St. Hilary of Poitiers
Concerning the Holy Spirit . . . there is no need to speak, because we are bound to confess him, proceeding, as he does, from Father and Son (The Trinity 2:29 [AD 357]).
But I cannot describe him, whose pleas for me I cannot describe. As in revelation that your only-begotten was born of you before times eternal, when we cease to struggle with ambiguities of language and difficulties of thought, the one certainty of his birth remains; so I hold fast in my consciousness the truth that your Holy Spirit is from you and through him, although I cannot in my intellect comprehend it (The Trinity 12:56 [AD 357]).
Didymus the Blind
As we have understood discussions . . . about the incorporeal natures, so too it is now to be recognized that the Holy Spirit receives from the Son that which he was of his own nature. . . . So too the Son is said to receive from the Father the very things by which he subsists. For neither has the Son anything else except those things given him by the Father, nor has the Holy Spirit any other substance than that given him by the Son (The Holy Spirit 37 [AD 362]).
St. Epiphanius of Salamis
The Father always existed and the Son always existed, and the Spirit breathes from the Father and the Son (Man Well-Anchored 75 [AD 374]).
St. Basil of Caesarea
One, moreover, is the Holy Spirit, and we speak of Him singly, conjoined as he is to the one Father through the one Son, and through himself completing the adorable and blessed Trinity (The Holy Spirit 18:45 [AD 375]).
Thus the way of the knowledge of God lies from one Spirit through the one Son to the one Father, and conversely to the natural goodness and the inherent and the royal dignity extend from the Father through the only-begotten to the Spirit. Thus there is acknowledgment of the hypostases, and the true dogma of the monarchy is not lost (The Holy Spirit 18:47 [AD 375]).
St. Ambrose of Milan
Just as the Father is the fount of life, so too, there are many who have stated that the Son is designated as the fount of life. It is said, for example that with you, Almighty God, your Son is the fount of life, that is, the fount of the Holy Spirit. For the Spirit is life, just as the Lord says: ‘The words which I have spoken to you are Spirit and life’ [John 6:63]" (The Holy Spirit 1:15:152 [AD 381]).
The Holy Spirit, when he proceeds from the Father and the Son, does not separate himself from the Father and does not separate himself from the Son (The Holy Spirit 1:2:120 [AD 381]).
St. Gregory of Nyssa
For there, with the Father, unoriginated, ungenerated, always Father, the idea of the Son as coming from him yet side by side with him is inseparable join; and through the Son and yet with him, before any vague and unsubstantial conception comes in between, the Holy Spirit is found at once in closest union (Against Eunomius 1 [AD 382]).
From these quotes, we can see that the Catholic formulation of the Creed is completely orthodox.