This is one of those vague emotional arguments that it is very difficult to disabuse a person of if they are inclined to believe it.
Basically, a non-Catholic reads the New Testament, sees that Jesus condemns traditions of the Pharisees, observe that Catholics talk about tradition a lot, and then they start to simply substitute “Catholic” for “Pharisee” every time they read the Gospels.
Once you make that leap, it becomes very difficult to imagine that Jesus has anything but disdain for Catholics and the Catholic Church. This is exactly how anti-Catholic prejudice takes root in a person’s mind and heart.
In truth, there is a critical distinction that is missing in this “argument”: the distinction between the “traditions of men” (that Jesus condemns) and the “traditions of God” (that Jesus absolutely upholds). Jesus does not condemn all tradition without distinction. That would be incomprehensible to the Christian faith (and also the Jewish faith—and Jesus was a good Jew). Even knowing what books are included in the Bible is a tradition. Without tradition, each person would be starting from scratch in trying to determine who Jesus was, what writings about him are authentic, what the nature of God is, etc.
As for making the temple a marketplace, the Church does not sell indulgences. That is known as “simony” and is a sin. It has always been a sin. Grace is free and cannot be bought or sold. The fact that some people tried to do this at certain points in history is an abuse of the legitimate tradition of indulgences. Martin Luther was right to speak out against such a thing, but he took the wrong approach to fix the problem (i.e. breaking away and doing away with many other essential aspects of Christian teaching in the process).
You might try to make such points with your friend. But be sure to do so with love, and do not be surprised if he does not immediately change his mind. For those who have been raised to view the Gospels through this lens, it will take time for them to change their focus. Keep your friend in prayer.