I have said following St Thomas Aquinas that in the initial act of creation per Genesis 1:1 God created the substance of the heavens and the substance of the elements, i.e., the entire matter of the corporeal world under the form of the heavens and the various forms of the baryonic elements indicated by the word ‘earth’. According to the present scientific understanding, the simplest baryonic elemental forms are quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons. The forms of neutrons, protons, and the forms of the naturally occuring elemental atoms on the periodic table were created simultaneously I believe with the quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons. Quarks are not found to exist apart from neutrons and protons. In this initial act of creation, God may also have created and formed simultaneously with the elemental atoms various compound forms of them in various quantities such as the various simple molecules found in the interstellar medium such as ice-water and in cosmic dust.
Naturally, the placement of every elemental atom in the heavens or ‘space’ upon their creation was determined by God. Consequently, there is no doubt that every galaxy in the heavens, every star, and every object associated with any star such as planets or asteroids were immediately formed by God but not all necessarily at the same time. The question could be considered whether after the formation of massive stars by God and supernovae explosions and the dispersion of this material in space, whether stars can form by natural processes from this material. I’m going to address this question a little later on.
As God created a great variety and multitude of plants and animals, so he also formed a great variety and multitude of stars. Some are bigger and brighter than others and some shine longer than others. From observations, apparently God formed some stars so massive that they explode into supernovae and disperse their material far and wide into space. In the early universe, I don’t think it is possible to determine in any manner how many of these kinds of massive stars God may have formed unless it is considered that a good part or a majority of the material now found in the interstellar medium is from blown out stars from ages past.
It is said that the interstellar medium in the Milky Way galaxy averages one atom per centimeter cubed. This makes for quite a substantial number of the material in the interstellar medium, i.e., 7-10 billion solar (our sun) masses. The material is not evenly distributed over the galaxy but some places are more dense than others. A few articles I read have said that about 50% of the interstellar material is in clouds or nebulas such as the Orion Nebula.