Creationism and the Problem of Biogeography


#1

This is an interesting problem for creationism.

It is a problem that most of the early evolutionists noticed, and could not reconcile with the biblical account of the flood.

The idea of biogeography is that the species on the planet are very diverse and are located in very wide-ranging places. The Galapagos Islands, for example, contain very distinct species that differ from one island to the next and cannot interbeed. Another example are the komodo dragons which are found only on a few islands near Indonesia, zoos notwithstanding. Or kangaroos in Australia.

The problem for creationism is explaining how all these distinct creatures (especially land-dwelling creatures) reached such far-off and isolated places like the Galapagos if in fact they all migrated from Noah’s Ark.

If the earth was completely flooded, and land-dwelling creatures were re-introduced on the “mountains of Ararat,” how does it reach some isolated place such as an island in South America and found no where else?

But the list of isolated species is not limited to komodo dragons and kangaroos.
This is a problem that evolutionary biology can explain quite easily. But can any scientific worldview which excludes the possibility of biological evolution explain this coherently?

Please keep your posts relevant to the topic.


#2

Alright, assuming that we’re going with the 6-10,000 year theory, that is still a long time for those animals to have swum or migrate some how, there. We’re told that those animals have been around for thousands to millions of years, but, in all honesty, has anybody ever SEEN a Galapagos tortoise, an Komodo dragon, or a Kangaroo & documented it over 600 years ago? How do we know those creatures didn’t just come to be there due to human migration?

Also, even creationists will believe in a sort of evolution, an adaption for the species. Do the tortoises swim? That answers one question, if so.

Also, what is to say that the entire Earth really WAS flooded? As possible & probable as this may be, it may only be true for the area known in the Bible, for all we know, these creatures may have already been to the extreems of Pangea & when the flood occured, it merely broke up the continent & let them be on their merry little ways.


#3

answersingenesis.org/home/area/faq/migration.asp

answersingenesis.org/creation/v25/i4/blanket.asp

Very Protestant site, but then again many creationists are Protestant. I didn’t bother reading it yet, but their site does tend to have pretty decent answers for this sort of question.

For a complete list, go here: answersingenesis.org/home/area/qa.asp


#4

Just to go off topic for this one post, this is a personal favorite of mine, especially the part under “bad dates:”

answersingenesis.org/docs2002/carbon_dating.asp

ok, now back to animals…

mooooo


#5

[quote=adstrinity] Alright, assuming that we’re going with the 6-10,000 year theory, that is still a long time for those animals to have swum or migrate some how, there.

[/quote]

There are millions of species this applies to. They all just swam to their respective islands and everywhere else they died out…?

[quote=adstrinity] We’re told that those animals have been around for thousands to millions of years, but, in all honesty, has anybody ever SEEN a Galapagos tortoise, an Komodo dragon, or a Kangaroo & documented it over 600 years ago? How do we know those creatures didn’t just come to be there due to human migration?

[/quote]

Again, humans are going move millions of species to isolated places? Plus how do you explain that the species don’t exist any where else besides their isolated places? Why aren’t kangaroos native to Asia? Why aren’t horses native to Australia?

The Galapagos were only recently inhabited by scientists. So humans moved all kinds of species there too?

You’re actually going to place your faith in the inerrancy of the Bible on the idea that humans shuffled species around the planet? It’s almost as if they wanted evolution to appear true.

[quote=adstrinity] Also, what is to say that the entire Earth really WAS flooded? As possible & probable as this may be, it may only be true for the area known in the Bible, for all we know, these creatures may have already been to the extreems of Pangea & when the flood occured, it merely broke up the continent & let them be on their merry little ways.
[/quote]

Do you think the Bible says anything about Pangea?


#6

A global flood a few thousand years ago was recognized as untenable by Christian creationist geologists well before Darwin for several reasons. I go with a local flood.

History of that outlined here in detail by Davis Young, evangelical geologist

Phil P


#7

Lazer << but their site does tend to have pretty decent answers for this sort of question >>

On this question they don’t. I need to read the AiG responses again, but if I remember they postulate either (1) the continents were all connected just a few thousand years ago, (2) all the animals lived near Noah, or (3) miracle upon miracle for these animals movements that are nowhere mentioned in Genesis. None of those will wash (pun intended) scientifically or biblically. See Davis Young book I linked above. :rolleyes:

BTW, a good exegetical defense of a local / regional Genesis flood.

Phil P


#8

Lazer << Just to go off topic for this one post, this is a personal favorite of mine, especially the part under “bad dates:” >>

Are there a few bad dates? Yes. Does that invalidate the thousands of good dates? No it does not. Can scientists tell the good from the bad? Yes they can. Do creationists frequently misrepresent the scientific literature in this area? Yes they do.

If you have 50 clocks in your house, 46 of them read its 2:30 AM, 1 reads its 2:29 AM, 1 reads 2:31 AM, 1 is flashing 12 repeatedly, and 1 reads 5:15 PM, what time would you say it is? Similar idea. You probably didn’t reset the 1 or 2 clocks, and we can be confident the time is indeed 2:30 AM. There are about 30 or 40 such radiometric clocks with thousands of dates published each year in the scientific literature. They know what they are doing.

Evidence the Earth is Very Old

Phil P


#9

Here I’ll help you guys out. Evangelical geologist Davis Young on Hugh Miller, the great Christian creationist geologist of the 19th century…

Vastly expanded knowledge of the fossil record made the biogeographical argument far more persuasive than it had been only a century earlier. Animals in various parts of the world had been preceded by similar animals. The sloths of South America had been preceded by the extinct megatherium, known only from fossil remains. The kangaroos and wombats of Australia had been found as fossils only in that region. The birds of New Zealand were found as fossils only in New Zealand. The problem of the migration of species to and from the ark could not be evaded by recourse to an interchange of land and sea. [Christian creationist geologist, Hugh] Miller claimed with devastating logic spiced with biting humor that, on the supposition that a continuous tract of land stretched between South America and Asia,

“it is just possible that, during the hundred and twenty years in which the ark was in building, a pair of sloths might have crept by inches across this continuous tract, from where the skeletons of the great megatheria are buried, to where the great vessel stood. But after the Flood had subsided, and the change in sea and land had taken place, there would remain for them no longer a roadway; and so, though their journey outwards might, in all save the impulse which led to it, have been altogether a natural one, their voyage homewards could not be other than miraculous.” (Hugh Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks [1858], pages 347-348)

One would need miracles for even less well-traveled species. How could Great Britain and Ireland have been restocked with their original inhabitants? While “the red deer and the native ox might have swam across the Straits of Dover or the Irish Channel,” such an effort would have been “far beyond the power of such feeble natives of the soil as the mole, the hedgehog, the shrew, the dormouse, and the field-vole.” But the biological distribution problem was even more serious. Freshwater fish and mollusks would have been killed. Given the spawning habits of salmon and trout, would not the flood have destroyed them? Invertebrates of the shores would be destroyed. Few of the more than 100,000 species of plants or their seeds could survive submersion in water for a year. Without another miracle, three quarters of the globe’s vegetation would necessarily have perished.

Chastising those who ignored geology as baseless speculation, Miller vigorously insisted that Christians had to pay attention to the discoveries of the science of geology. Individuals unacquainted with geology placed themselves “in positions greatly more perilous than they seem to think, when they enter on the field of argument with men who for many years have made it a subject of special study.” The cumulative evidence from geology against a universal flood was overwhelming.

If that isn’t enough proof for evolution, then here are some transitional creatures, I can’t imagine how they survived the Flood!

Phil P


#10

Geology and the Bible agree on an original single landmass, geology calls gondwanaland.
But the Bible recorded that several thousand years before Geologists.
Geology and the Bible agree on continental drift theory but the Bible got there first with its account of the land separating during the lifetime of Pelig.
Many species have become extinct over the last few hundred years alone for all sorts of reasons. Presumably a small population of isolated species today does not mean they have been like that for hundreds of millions of years and could easily be simply a remnant of a much wider population reduced by natural causes.


#11

…gondwanaland. that’s awesome.

yeah, so, like, natural causes killed off certain species and left others? really… what natural causes?

ach! i can’t believe i’m even entertaining the thought. It’s such nonsense. You might as well go along with the new creationist trend and say that it was only a local flood, even though that really discredits the Bible as a source of literal and inspired history.


#12

OK, if we’re gonna keep this thread going, here are my objections to a global flood from last year:

(1) How did the Kangaroos get from/to Australia to/from Noah and the ark? Did they swim the oceans? And a bonus question (b) How did the Penguins and Polar Bears get from/to the South/North Pole to/from Noah and the ark? And how many billions of ice cubes did Noah bring on the ark to keep them happy? And another bonus © Did Noah bring a T-Rex dinosaur, or at least a couple of “baby” T-Rex onto the ark (for those of you who are young earth) ?

(2) How did the Green River Formation in Wyoming form with its 20,000,000 (million) Varve layers in one year of a global flood? (each layer requires at least a month to settle)

(3) How did evolution produce – from 2 of each “kind” of animal Noah brought on the ark – the 1.5 to 2 million species we have today in just a few thousand years? (Assuming the global flood is dated around 4000 to 5000 years ago)

(4) there must have been about 2,100 different kinds of living animals per acre of land on earth just before the Flood (the calculation is taken from estimates of the Karoo Formation in South Africa which contains the remains of some 800,000,000,000 (billion) animals representing approx 1% of total, divided by number of acres of land on earth)

(5) the “evolutionary” ordering of the fossils found throughout the geological strata (fish before amphibians before reptiles before mammals, etc), a global flood would mix up the order considerably, or sort by “weight” which we definitely do not see

(6) no evidence of a recent global flood in ice cores (going back 40,000 years) or tree rings (going back 10,000 years)

(7) a global flood cannot explain limestone deposits (billions of microscopic sea animals thousands of meters thick), chalk deposits (plankton settle very slowly), salt and sedimentary (30,000 feet thick) deposits requiring much time to form (not possible in one year of a flood)

(8) where did all the water come from, and where did it go?

A local flood is exegetically plausible, we don’t have to throw out Genesis 6-9 either.

Phil P


#13

OK, if we’re gonna keep this thread going, here are my objections to a global flood from last year:

“(1) How did the Kangaroos get from/to Australia to/from Noah and the ark? Did they swim the oceans?”

In Noahs day there was just one landmass. No need to swim he-he.

“And a bonus question (b) How did the Penguins and Polar Bears get from/to the South/North Pole to/from Noah and the ark?”

I see this gondwanaland place is positioned partly over the south pole on my map. Penguins go where-ever the cold water goes and polar bears need not have come from the north pole only have gone to it. I’m arguing using what the geologist have told me.

“And how many billions of ice cubes did Noah bring on the ark to keep them happy? And another bonus © Did Noah bring a T-Rex dinosaur, or at least a couple of “baby” T-Rex onto the ark (for those of you who are young earth) ?”

Where have you been? - they died in the flood, of course!.

“(2) How did the Green River Formation in Wyoming form with its 20,000,000 (million) Varve layers in one year of a global flood? (each layer requires at least a month to settle)”

Each layer requires a month to settle today in our present conditions.

“(3) How did evolution produce – from 2 of each “kind” of animal Noah brought on the ark – the 1.5 to 2 million species we have today in just a few thousand years? (Assuming the global flood is dated around 4000 to 5000 years ago)”

First the Bible doesnt place any date on the Earth.
There are 38 or so phyla for animals, from those 38 phyla sprang 1,370,500 animal species. From these phyla the subsequent history of animal life amounts to little more than variations on anatomical themes.

All Noah needed to save, it could be argued, was the 38 phyla of animals which later evolved into their different species.

“(4) there must have been about 2,100 different kinds of living animals per acre of land on earth just before the Flood (the calculation is taken from estimates of the Karoo Formation in South Africa which contains the remains of some 800,000,000,000 (billion) animals representing approx 1% of total, divided by number of acres of land on earth)”

Based on a young Earth.

“(5) the “evolutionary” ordering of the fossils found throughout the geological strata (fish before amphibians before reptiles before mammals, etc), a global flood would mix up the order considerably, or sort by “weight” which we definitely do not see”

Sort by body density surely, which some say they have demonstrated experimentally in the order you give.

“(6) no evidence of a recent global flood in ice cores (going back 40,000 years) or tree rings (going back 10,000 years)”

Assuming young age again. Interestingly I’ve seen one geologist pay a heavy price for publishing a report claiming to have found blood traces inside dinosaur bones, another for having obtained a 30,000 to 40,000 yr date from fossilized wood in sandstone.

“(7) a global flood cannot explain limestone deposits (billions of microscopic sea animals thousands of meters thick), chalk deposits (plankton settle very slowly), salt and sedimentary (30,000 feet thick) deposits requiring much time to form (not possible in one year of a flood)”

The chalk deposits and limestone deposits are primarily mineral in origin with surprisingly [to geologists] little fossil evidence present.

“(8) where did all the water come from, and where did it go?”

Fountains of the deep? Possibly the water didnt go anywhere, land separated, collided, raised up. Maybe a fractured land was more boyant on the mantel than a single landmass.

"A local flood is exegetically plausible, we don’t have to throw out Genesis 6-9 either

Phil P"

I dont throw anything out, science is a servant of the truth. :sleep:


#14

[quote=atheos_sum]There are millions of species this applies to. They all just swam to their respective islands and everywhere else they died out…?
[/quote]

Yeah, why not? Have you never heard of Survival of the Fittest? If a kangaroo imagrates to New York, well then, he’s not going to continue living, is he?

Again, humans are going move millions of species to isolated places? Plus how do you explain that the species don’t exist any where else besides their isolated places? Why aren’t kangaroos native to Asia? Why aren’t horses native to Australia?

Yes, they would take their pets with them. Those who brought animals who wouldn’t fare well, didn’t.

The Galapagos were only recently inhabited by scientists. So humans moved all kinds of species there too?

Do you have proof that they didn’t?

You’re actually going to place your faith in the inerrancy of the Bible on the idea that humans shuffled species around the planet? It’s almost as if they wanted evolution to appear true.

“Inerrancy of the Bible” – Like what?
“On the idea that humans suffled species around the planet” – This isn’t found in the Bible. Maybe somebody should read his or her Bible more.
“It’s almost as if they wanted evolution to appear true.” Meh. Appearances can be decieving.

Do you think the Bible says anything about Pangea?

The Bible says all sorts of things!! :slight_smile:

ALSO, to the one person who brought up the 2 of each kind thing…yeah, that’s only if they were unclean animals, the clean animals he brought 7 each male & female.


#15

[quote=I Leatherman]OK, if we’re gonna keep this thread going, here are my objections to a global flood from last year:

“(1) How did the Kangaroos get from/to Australia to/from Noah and the ark? Did they swim the oceans?”

In Noahs day there was just one landmass. No need to swim he-he.

“And a bonus question (b) How did the Penguins and Polar Bears get from/to the South/North Pole to/from Noah and the ark?”

I see this gondwanaland place is positioned partly over the south pole on my map. Penguins go where-ever the cold water goes and polar bears need not have come from the north pole only have gone to it. I’m arguing using what the geologist have told me.
[/quote]

Did a geologist also tell you how life possibly survived the massive catastophe that would have occurred when the plates broke up and moved?

“(2) How did the Green River Formation in Wyoming form with its 20,000,000 (million) Varve layers in one year of a global flood? (each layer requires at least a month to settle)”

Each layer requires a month to settle today in our present conditions.

Do you have any evidence that the rate of settling of fine-grained particles in water is slower now than in the past?

“(3) How did evolution produce – from 2 of each “kind” of animal Noah brought on the ark – the 1.5 to 2 million species we have today in just a few thousand years? (Assuming the global flood is dated around 4000 to 5000 years ago)”

First the Bible doesnt place any date on the Earth.
There are 38 or so phyla for animals, from those 38 phyla sprang 1,370,500 animal species. From these phyla the subsequent history of animal life amounts to little more than variations on anatomical themes.

All Noah needed to save, it could be argued, was the 38 phyla of animals which later evolved into their different species.

It’s good to see that you believe in macroevolution.

“(5) the “evolutionary” ordering of the fossils found throughout the geological strata (fish before amphibians before reptiles before mammals, etc), a global flood would mix up the order considerably, or sort by “weight” which we definitely do not see”

Sort by body density surely, which some say they have demonstrated experimentally in the order you give.

How come there are no flowering plants found in carboniferous coal deposits? Hmmm? Were they sorted out from the other plant mass that make up coal deposits?

“(7) a global flood cannot explain limestone deposits (billions of microscopic sea animals thousands of meters thick), chalk deposits (plankton settle very slowly), salt and sedimentary (30,000 feet thick) deposits requiring much time to form (not possible in one year of a flood)”

The chalk deposits and limestone deposits are primarily mineral in origin with surprisingly [to geologists] little fossil evidence present.

Oh, really? Here’s one geologist that is stunned to learn that fossils are rare in chalks (almost completely composed of fossils) and limestones.

“(8) where did all the water come from, and where did it go?”

Fountains of the deep? Possibly the water didnt go anywhere, land separated, collided, raised up. Maybe a fractured land was more boyant on the mantel than a single landmass.

So your position is that the crustal plates are floating on water?

Peace

Tim


#16

[quote=adstrinity]Alright, assuming that we’re going with the 6-10,000 year theory, that is still a long time for those animals to have swum or migrate some how, there. We’re told that those animals have been around for thousands to millions of years, but, in all honesty, has anybody ever SEEN a Galapagos tortoise, an Komodo dragon, or a Kangaroo & documented it over 600 years ago? How do we know those creatures didn’t just come to be there due to human migration?

Also, even creationists will believe in a sort of evolution, an adaption for the species. Do the tortoises swim? That answers one question, if so.

Also, what is to say that the entire Earth really WAS flooded? As possible & probable as this may be, it may only be true for the area known in the Bible, for all we know, these creatures may have already been to the extreems of Pangea & when the flood occured, it merely broke up the continent & let them be on their merry little ways.
[/quote]

The Flood broke up the continent? Are you serious?

The Atlantic ocean is approximately 3500 miles wide. Assuming the earth is 10,000 years old, the Americas would have to have to moved 35 miles per year on average. Do you have evidence this is occurring?

Even large earthquakes move the earth only a very a little. The 9.3 Sumatra quake of Dec. 26 moved Thailand 27 centimeters. How many catastrophic earthquakes do you think are necessary to widen the Atlantic by 35 miles every year—and down the entire longitude of the globe? Land movement does not occur equally along a rupture. Although the Sumatra quake created a rupture 1000 miles long distant areas were moved a much smaller distance (China, 10 millimeters). Many 9.3 quakes would need to be spaced along entire tectonic rift to equally move the whole plate 27 centimeters.

:hmmm:


#17

[quote=petra]The Flood broke up the continent? Are you serious?
[/quote]

I’m not ruling it out as a possibility.

The Atlantic ocean is approximately 3500 miles wide. Assuming the earth is 10,000 years old, the Americas would have to have to moved 35 miles per year on average. Do you have evidence this is occurring?

No, I think you are confused. This would have been fairly instantaneous if God desired. Let’s say that they were floating away quickly at first and eventually slowing down until they all but virtually stopped. What’s the issue with this? Why would over 35 mph be an issue? Especially if nobody was on them?

Even large earthquakes move the earth only a very a little. The 9.3 Sumatra quake of Dec. 26 moved Thailand 27 centimeters. How many catastrophic earthquakes do you think are necessary to widen the Atlantic by 35 miles every year—and down the entire longitude of the globe? Land movement does not occur equally along a rupture. Although the Sumatra quake created a rupture 1000 miles long distant areas were moved a much smaller distance (China, 10 millimeters). Many 9.3 quakes would need to be spaced along entire tectonic rift to equally move the whole plate 27 centimeters.
:hmmm:

So, the Atlantic widens yearly? I did not know that. Ummmm…would the widening eventually drown us or bring us back to one continent? Is the Pacific also widening?

I don’t understand why this is so hard to understand. What makes you think that this was merely an earthquake that broke all the continents up? I think you are presuming a lot here.


#18

[quote=adstrinity]I’m not ruling it out as a possibility.

No, I think you are confused. This would have been fairly instantaneous if God desired. Let’s say that they were floating away quickly at first and eventually slowing down until they all but virtually stopped. What’s the issue with this? Why would over 35 mph be an issue? Especially if nobody was on them?
[/quote]

And I though 35 miles per year was fast!! :rotfl:

So, the Atlantic widens yearly? I did not know that. Ummmm…would the widening eventually drown us or bring us back to one continent? Is the Pacific also widening?

I don’t understand why this is so hard to understand. What makes you think that this was merely an earthquake that broke all the continents up?

Oh, my goodness. No, the Pacific is becoming smaller as the American plates drift West. The scenario of the Atlantic widening yearly was based on the average movement necessary to account for the continents’ present position, given a 10,000 year age of the earth. However, the earth is actually billions of years old and the continental drift extremely slow, which is probably why you are unaware of its annual movement!

Do you not know what earthquakes are or why they occur?


#19

[quote=petra]And I though 35 miles per year was fast!! :rotfl:
[/quote]

I thought you would.

Oh, my goodness. No, the Pacific is becoming smaller as the American plates drift West. The scenario of the Atlantic widening yearly was based on the average movement necessary to account for the continents’ present position, given a 10,000 year age of the earth. However, the earth is actually billions of years old and the continental drift extremely slow, which is probably why you are unaware of its annual movement!

  1. Well, as long as this makes things easier for China when they decide to take over.

  2. I do not believe it has been determined that “the earth is actually billions of years old”.

  3. Probably.

Do you not know what earthquakes are or why they occur?

Enlighten me, please.


#20

Quote:
Originally Posted by I Leatherman
OK, if we’re gonna keep this thread going, here are my objections to a global flood from last year:

“(1) How did the Kangaroos get from/to Australia to/from Noah and the ark? Did they swim the oceans?”

“In Noahs day there was just one landmass. No need to swim he-he.”

“And a bonus question (b) How did the Penguins and Polar Bears get from/to the South/North Pole to/from Noah and the ark?”

"I see this gondwanaland place is positioned partly over the south pole on my map. Penguins go where-ever the cold water goes and polar bears need not have come from the north pole only have gone to it. I’m arguing using what the geologist have told me. "

“Did a geologist also tell you how life possibly survived the massive catastophe that would have occurred when the plates broke up and moved?”

Well, I find myself here, the plates broken, and moved, according to everyone and everythings hunky-dory.

“Quote:
”(2) How did the Green River Formation in Wyoming form with its 20,000,000 (million) Varve layers in one year of a global flood? (each layer requires at least a month to settle)"

Each layer requires a month to settle today in our present conditions. "

“Do you have any evidence that the rate of settling of fine-grained particles in water is slower now than in the past?”

It is easy to flocculate fine-grained particles. Do you have concrete evidence of a uniform global past.

Quote:
"(3) How did evolution produce – from 2 of each “kind” of animal Noah brought on the ark – the 1.5 to 2 million species we have today in just a few thousand years? (Assuming the global flood is dated around 4000 to 5000 years ago)"

“First the Bible doesnt place any date on the Earth.
There are 38 or so phyla for animals, from those 38 phyla sprang 1,370,500 animal species. From these phyla the subsequent history of animal life amounts to little more than variations on anatomical themes.”

"All Noah needed to save, it could be argued, was the 38 phyla of animals which later evolved into their different species. "

“It’s good to see that you believe in macroevolution.”

(deliberate intelligent design).
Keeping in mind that these phyla always had to have the potential for perfect variety inbuilt into them. A simple or primitive plant or insect having 2 - 2.5 times the number of chromosomes as a person allows for much variety from a basic body plan.
Its hard to see a plant evolving many times more chromosomes than it needs, assuming a plant can design its-self.

Evolution would have you move a creature from extremely basic to more complex. But the reality is of complex creatures suddenly appearing in a complete state in the fossil record. And these creatures would have the capacity to produce many perfect variants.

Quote:
"(5) the “evolutionary” ordering of the fossils found throughout the geological strata (fish before amphibians before reptiles before mammals, etc), a global flood would mix up the order considerably, or sort by “weight” which we definitely do not see"

"Sort by body density surely, which some say they have demonstrated experimentally in the order you give. "

“How come there are no flowering plants found in carboniferous coal deposits? Hmmm? Were they sorted out from the other plant mass that make up coal deposits?”

Perhaps, perhaps it was winter.

Quote:
"(7) a global flood cannot explain limestone deposits (billions of microscopic sea animals thousands of meters thick), chalk deposits (plankton settle very slowly), salt and sedimentary (30,000 feet thick) deposits requiring much time to form (not possible in one year of a flood)"

"The chalk deposits and limestone deposits are primarily mineral in origin with surprisingly [to geologists] little fossil evidence present. "

“Oh, really? Here’s one geologist that is stunned to learn that fossils are rare in chalks (almost completely composed of fossils) and limestones.”

I work with quarried limestones of all common types. This year I saw two small fossils. Away from bedding planes fossils are scarce.
I watched an English geologist poke his pen-knife into the cliffs of Dover and listened to the words ‘but fossils are surprisingly rare’.

Quote:
"(8) where did all the water come from, and where did it go?"

"Fountains of the deep? Possibly the water didnt go anywhere, land separated, collided, raised up. Maybe a fractured land was more boyant on the mantel than a single landmass. "

“So your position is that the crustal plates are floating on water?”

No.

"Peace

Tim"

Peace


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