I recently had a discussion with a Protestant friend in which I argued that the early Church viewed the deuterocanonicals as being part of Scripture. In order to back my argument with facts, I decided to do research. What I found was that several significant Church Fathers apparently denied the canonicity of the deuterocanonicals or did not include them in their lists of the canon. Among them were Melito of Sardis, Athanansius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Hilary of Poitiers, Jerome, and Pope Gregory the Great (specifically 1 Maccabees). What was disturbing to me was that Pope Gregory would say that 1 Maccabees was not canonical after the Councils of Hippo and Carthage and previous Popes declared that it was. Moreover, I’m having difficulty responding to the claim that Tobit cannot be canonical because the angel Raphael lied by specifically saying he was Azariah, the son of a person Tobit knew. How can an angel lie? I know there are plenty of angel-in-disguise stories in the Bible, but in none of these stories do you find an angel blatantly lying about his identity. Instead, they remain silent. I know Jewish morality at the time was different from Christian morality, but wouldn’t an angel, a sinless being that knows the moral law of God, know better and refrain from lying? I know that Tobit is a work of fiction, but why would the Holy Spirit inspire someone to write a story in which an angel of God sins by lying?