Three times Jesus tells the apostles He must be killed and then rise on the third day:
Matthew 16:21 From that time Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised.
Matthew 17:22-23 As they were gathering in Galilee, Jesus said to them, "The Son of man is to be delivered into the hands of men, and they will kill him, and he will be raised on the third day." ...
Matthew 20:18-19 "Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man will be delivered to the chief priests and scribes, and they will condemn him to death, and deliver him to the Gentiles to be mocked and scourged and crucified, and he will be raised on the third day."
At the time Jesus is arrested - when His above words to the apostles actually start to occur, He says first to Peter (vs 54) and then to the crowd who came to arrest Him (vs 56):
Matthew 26:53-54 Do you think that I cannot appeal to my Father, and he will at once send me more than twelve legions of angels? But how then should the scriptures be fulfilled, that it must be so?"
Matthew 26:56 But all this has taken place, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled."
So Jesus specifically says that what is occurring is what has been prophecied in the (OT) Scriptures. He is saying they apply to Him in regards to what He is about to suffer. So, one has to look for OT Scriptures that prophecy what Jesus is about to undergo because Jesus said those Scriptures spoke of Him.
Thus for example, the chapters in Isaiah about the suffering Servant are part of what Jesus "specifically taught" about Himself; about His death.
Isaiah 53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that made us whole, and with his stripes we are healed.
Isaiah 53:10 Yet it was the will of the LORD to bruise hHim; He has put Him to grief; when he makes Himself an offering for sin, He shall see His offspring, He shall prolog His days;
Isaiah 53:11 ....the righteous one, my servant, make many to be accounted righteous; and He shall bear their iniquities.
Isaiah 53:12 ....because He poured out His soul to death, and was numbered with the transgressors; yet He bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.