Most of the problems you mention are, as you know, errors, like omitting the Kyrie if Form A of the Penitential Rite is used, having someone besides a priest, deacon, or bishop give the homily, breaking the bread before the proper Fraction, etc. However, you should know that with respect to the Responsorial Psalm:
In the dioceses of the United States of America, the following may also be sung in place of the Psalm assigned in the Lectionary for Mass: either the proper or seasonal antiphon and Psalm from the Lectionary, as found either in the Roman Gradual or Simple Gradual or in another musical setting; or an antiphon and Psalm from another collection of the psalms and antiphons, including psalms arranged in metrical form, providing that they have been approved by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops or the Diocesan Bishop. (GIRM no. 61)
If I had to hazard a guess, they are probably doing a seasonal Psalm or a Psalm from another collection. This is permitted.
Allowing religious to give the homily or even read the Gospel
The priest breaks the bread before saying the words of consecration
The priest invites the congregation to join him in the doxology “through him,in him, and with him, in the unity …”
Before the Prayer after Communion is said a second offering is collected and any announcements are made.The prayer after communion is said right before the final blessing.
The Psalm designated for that Sunday is changed.
…why would it? No.
The only way to invalidate the mass is to intentionally invalidate the words of the consecration, which would be “This is my body” and “This is my blood”, though there is a tricky case in the Anaphora of St. Addai and St. Mari where those words are not used, though it has been declared valid by the Vatican.
There’s more. If the consecration is invalid for sure the Mass is invalid. But the priest also must receive the Eucharist to complete the sacrifice. If the priest doesn’t receive, even if there are no abuses in the Mass and everything is done according to the rubrics, then it is an invalid Mass. The Eucharist can be valid even if the Mass is invalid.
There’s a lot more. A sacrament requires valid a) form, b) matter and c) intent. Lack of any of the three will render it invalid.
In the case of the Eucharist, we’ve covered valid form, which is the words ‘this is my body’ and ‘this is my blood’.
Valid matter for the Eucharist is pure wheat bread and pure grape wine (ie without a significant amount of any additives). So the Eucharist could be invalidated if, for example, cornflour, rye flour, dried fruit, eggs, honey, oil or other additives are used in any appreciable quantity in the composition of the bread, or fruits other than grape, or spirits based on grains (such as whisky), are included in the composition of the ‘wine’.
Valid intent is presumed unless it’s incredibly obvious that the priest lacks any intent to actually consecrate that bread and wine.
So, as a hypothetical, a priest who is teaching seminarians how to conduct Mass and, in the course of doing so, produces bread and wine in the classroom and says the words of consecration over them, wouldn’t confect the sacrament in doing so, as his intent was to teach rather than to actually celebrate Mass and consecrate that bread and wine.
None of the above invalidate the Mass. The Mass is valid if (a) validly ordained priest(s) and/or bishop(s) celebrate/concelebrate it; intent of the celebrant/concelebrants must be to do what the Church intends – to make Christ physically present via the miracle of transubstantiation at the consecration; matter – valid matter consists of unleavened wheat bread and grape wine; form – the proper words of the consecration must be used: “This is My Body” and “This is … My Blood”, which when said by the priest with the proper intention and matter truly shows the priest acts in persona Christi. Other parts of the Eucharistic Prayer are essentially preparatory; changing the words of the Eucharistic Prayer is illicit and gravely sinful for the priest but would not invalidate the Mass as long as the words “This is My Body” and “This is … My Blood” were said.
The other things you mention though are liturgical abuses. For example, with the penitential rite – All the texts of the Mass – prayers, responses, readings – must be according to the norms approved by the Church. Under no circumstances can anything be changed outside of the rules laid down by the Church. ( #22Sacrosanctum Concilium; Can. 928; #5Inæstimabile Donum).
Religious giving the homily – when a homily is given, it may never be preached by a lay man, lay woman, or non-ordained religious, only an ordained man (bishop, priest, deacon) can give the homily (Can. 767 §1; GIRM #66).
The priest invites the congregation to join him in the doxology “through him, in him, and with him, in the unity …” – the mixing of roles between priests and laity has degraded so far that a specific document was promulgated to address this issue: Ecclesiæ Mysterio. The Church has clearly defined the role of the clergy and the laity cf. Sacrosanctum Concilium #28; Can. 907.