I welcome any thoughts on this Biblical look at Romans 9, which has long been a ‘stronghold’ for Calvinists and a chapter of Romans which other Christians (including Catholics) tend to avoid.
“In each case, there is sin involved by one of the parties. It is not a ‘both are sinners so let’s show mercy to one of them’ theme.”
This. Pharaoh was responsible for the initial hardening of his heart through sin. Then, God hardened it more for the providential exodus of his first-born. Good stuff, bro.
Romans 9 Ver. 18.
And whom he will, he hardeneth. That is, permits to be hardened by their own malice, as it is divers times said in Exodus, that Pharao hardened his heart. God, says St. Augustine, is said to harden men’s hearts, not by causing their malice, but by not giving them the free gift of his grace, by which they become hardened by their own perverse will. (Witham) — Not by being the cause, or author of his sin, but by withholding his grace, and so leaving him in his sin, in punishment of his past demerits. (Challoner)
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