[quote="R_C, post:8, topic:321910"]
One of the best scientific books on the Crucifixion is indeed the book "The Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry" by Frederick T. Zugibe, M.D., Ph.D.
Besides the issue of the wrists (we established that the nails did go through the hands, as the stigmata - visible and invisible - of many saints also prove), in general the Romans broke the rules quite a bit...nobody was scourged before crucifixion, and certainly not as many times as the Holy Shround shows (and Sacred Scripture describes). And nobody was ever - as far as we know - crowned with thorns. So it would not be s
Wrong. Scourging paired with crucifixion was standard procedure among the Carthaginians and the Romans.
Hannibal was undecided whether to trust them or not, for the enterprise was greater than the authority of those who advised it; however, they at last persuaded him to leave Samnium for Campania. He warned them that they must make their repeated promises good by their acts, and after bidding them return to him with more of their countrymen, including some of their chief men, he dismissed them. Some who were familiar with the country told him that if he marched into the neighbourhood of Casinum and occupied the pass, he would prevent the Romans from rendering assistance to their allies. He accordingly ordered a guide to conduct him there. But the difficulty which the Carthaginians found in pronouncing Latin names led to the guide understanding Casilinum instead of Casinum. Quitting his intended route, he came down through the districts of Allifae, Callifae, and Cales on to the plains of Stella. When he looked round and saw the country shut in by mountains and rivers he called the guide and asked him where on earth he was. When he was told that he would that day have his quarters at Casilinum, he saw the mistake and knew that Casinum was far away in quite another country. The guide was scourged and crucified in order to strike terror into the others.
...] On his return to Gades, Mago found the gates closed against him, so he anchored off Cimbii, a place not far from Gades, and sent envoys to lodge a complaint against the gates being closed to him, an ally and a friend. They excused themselves by saying that it was done by a gathering of the townsmen who were incensed at some acts of pillage committed by the soldiers during the embarkation. He invited their sufetes - the title of their supreme magistrate - together with the city treasurer to a conference, and when they were come he ordered them to be scourged and crucified.
Is it worthwhile to weigh down on one's wound and hang impaled on a gibbet in order to postpone something which is the balm of troubles, the end of punishment? Can anyone be found who would prefer wasting away in pain dying limb by limb, or letting out his life drop by drop, rather than expiring once for all? Can any man be found willing to be fastened to the accursed tree, long sickly, already deformed, swelling with ugly weals on shoulders and chest, and drawing the breath of life amid long drawn-out agony? He would have many excuses for dying even before mounting the cross.
- Seneca, Letter 101, 12-14
No one can be condemned to the penalty of being beaten to death or to die under [beatings with] rods or during torture, although most persons, when they are tortured, lose their lives.
Whoever will want to exact punishment on a male or female slave at private expense, as he [the owner] who wants the [punishment] to be inflicted, he [the contractor] exacts the punishment in in this manner: if he wants [him] to bring the patibulum to the cross, the contractor will have to provide wooden posts, chains and cords for the floggers and the floggers themselves. And anyone who will want to exact punishment will have to give four sesterces for each of the workers who bring the patibulum and for the floggers and also for the executioner.
Josephus (Jewish War 2.308) relates how in the weeks before the outbreak of the Jewish War in AD 66, Florus had Jews who were Roman equestrians flogged and crucified, which was controversial (given how Roman citizens were exempt from crucifixion, because that was too degrading and shameful a death):
The soldiers, taking this exhortation of their commander in a sense agreeable to their desire of gain, did not only plunder the place they were sent to, but forcing themselves into every house, they slew its inhabitants; so the citizens fled along the narrow lanes, and the soldiers slew those that they caught, and no method of plunder was omitted; they also caught many of the quiet people, and brought them before Florus, whom he first chastised with stripes, and then crucified. Accordingly, the whole number of those that were destroyed that day, with their wives and children, (for they did not spare even the infants themselves,) was about three thousand and six hundred. And what made this calamity the heavier was this new method of Roman barbarity; for Florus ventured then to do what no one had done before, that is, to have men of the equestrian order whipped and nailed to the cross before his tribunal; who, although they were by birth Jews, yet were they of Roman dignity notwithstanding.
Also, the gospels don't explicitly say just how Jesus was flogged - they only say that He was flogged.