Is there a dogma stating that you can prove God’s existence with just reason and intellect?
Try reading the first couple pages of Ludwig Ott’s ‘Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma’.
‘God, our Creator and Lord, can be known with certainty, by the natural light of reason from created things.’ (De fide.)
The Vatican Council defined: "If anybody says that the one true God, Our Creator and Lord cannot be known with certainty in the light of human reason by those things which have been made, anathema sit.’
And then it goes on and explains.
Yes. It was defined at the First Vatican Council in the document Dei Filus (notably in chapter 2):
The same Holy mother Church holds and teaches that God, the source and end of all things, can be known with certainty from the consideration of created things, by the natural power of human reason
Although, to be precise, I wouldn’t say that this is a dogma stating that “you can prove God’s existence.” It would be more accurate to say that the existence of God can be known through human reason alone.
Here is a link to the First Vatican Council 1869-1870 AD texts that Shin gave.
(1/4 to 1/3 of the way down the page)
On revelation1. The same Holy mother Church holds and teaches that God, the source and end of all things, can be known with certainty from the consideration of created things, by the natural power of human reason : ever since the creation of the world, his invisible nature has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made. (cf Rom. 1:20)
Canons (about ½ way down)
2. On revelation
- If anyone says that the one, true God, our creator and lord, cannot be known with certainty from the things that have been made, by the natural light of human reason: let him be anathema.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church also contains this teaching.
III. The Knowledge of God According to the Church
36 "Our holy mother, the Church, holds and teaches that God, the first principle and last end of all things, can be known with certainty from the created world by the natural light of human reason."11 Without this capacity, man would not be able to welcome God’s revelation. Man has this capacity because he is created “in the image of God”.12
37 In the historical conditions in which he finds himself, however, man experiences many difficulties in coming to know God by the light of reason alone:
[INDENT]Though human reason is, strictly speaking, truly capable by its own natural power and light of attaining to a true and certain knowledge of the one personal God, who watches over and controls the world by his providence, and of the natural law written in our hearts by the Creator; yet there are many obstacles which prevent reason from the effective and fruitful use of this inborn faculty. …
[/INDENT]You might like to read the whole section; it isn’t very long.
The question, historically speaking, hasn’t been whether we can prove God’s existence through reason, but whether we can know God’s existence through reason. In the time leading up to the First Vatican Council, two movements in society attempted to answer this question. Naturalists only admitted physical things to their notion of what exists, and therefore, they claimed that it would be impossible, solely through reason, to know the existence of God (since God is not a material being). On the other hand, rationalists, although they might accept the notion that God exists, claimed that reason itself alone was the supreme judge, and therefore, that revelation was not sufficient in order to know that God exists.
As others have mentioned, the documents of Vatican I addressed this issue. It’s important to keep in mind, when reading these documents, exactly what the context was that the Council Fathers were addressing. Otherwise, reading the documents as if they were written in a vacuum and without context, might lead one to misunderstand what the documents were asserting.
Are you saying that the Church doesn’t have any interest in proving the existence of God?
Even St Thomas’ Quinque viae is not written to help atheists. It could be used as arguments anyway!