Here’s what the Church teaches:
When each of us dies, our souls are immediately taken to the presence of God and judged. This is called the Particular Judgment. At this point we begin our eternal destiny. If we are going to hell, our souls go directly there. If we are deemed worthy of heaven, our souls will go directly to heaven, or if we are going to heaven but are in need of purification, we may go to Purgatory first for a while (everyone in Purgatory will eventually go to heaven). Whatever our fate, our souls will stay there (heaven or hell) until the end of time, at which time the Second Coming will occur.
At the Second Coming at the end of time, those Christians still alive will be taken to heaven (what some Protestants think of as of the rapture). Then will occur the General Judgment. At that time the souls of the living and the dead will be reunited with their bodies and brought together in God’s presence and judged before all. Those who have already been judged in the Particular Judgment will be brought from wherever their souls were -heaven, hell or Purgatory-- and have their judgment confirmed before all, so that both the justice and mercy of God will be manifest to all.
After this, time and Purgatory will be no more and all will enter with their souls and bodies into their eternal destiny, either hell or heaven.
This is an extremely bare-bones sketch, so if you want to get the details, see the five articles I linked below:
In addition, you have to learn to recognize erroneous teachings about the End Times popularized by fundamentalists. In other words, toss out the “Left Behind” and “Late, Great Planet Earth” baloney. This view has been clearly and definitively condemned by the Catholic Church:
Decree of the Holy Office dated July 21, 1944:
"In recent times on several occasions, this Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office has been asked what must be thought of the system of mitigated Millenarianism, which teaches, for example, that Christ the Lord before the final judgment, whether or not preceded by the resurrection of the many just, will come visibly to rule over this world.
“The answer is: The system of mitigated Millenarianism cannot be taught safely.”
Here are some resources to help you develop some discernment in these areas:
Finally, here are some resources to help you develop a well-balanced Catholic understanding of the Book of Revelation, biblical prophecy, and eschatology. All of these are HIGHLY recommended:
The Navarre Bible Commentary on the Book of Revelation
The Navarre Bible Commentary on the Major Prophets
The Navarre Bible Commentary on the Minor Prophets
The End: The Book of Revelation, tape/CD series and Study Guide by Dr. Scott Hahn.
The Lamb’s Supper, by Dr. Scott Hahn.
Rapture: The End Times Fiction that Leaves Truth Behind, by David Curie
Revelation Revealed, tapes/CD series by Michael Barber
Coming Soon, a book on this same topic by Michael Barber
Introduction To Prophecy, CD set by Steve Wood