For a quick introduction, please read this article islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Contrad/External/mary.html. This isn’t a recent criticism, infact Christians once asked for an explanation of this verse to Muhammad’s face.
And there’s also the example that when Abdullah ibn Salam met the Prophet he is reported to have said “Auntie, he is really, by God, the brother of Moses and follows his religion.” Of course Abdullah didn’t really think Muhammad (saaw) was the literal brother of Moses (as)
And a couple of other quotes from Christians who’ve studied this topic:
“From the identity of names it has been generally imagined by Christian writers that the Koran here confounds Mary the mother of Jesus with Mary of Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron; which intolerable anachronism, if it were certain, is sufficient of itself to destroy the pretended authority of this book. But though Mohammed may be supposed to have been ignorant enough in ancient history and chronology, to have committed so gross a blunder; yet I do not see how it can be made out from the words of the Koran. For it does not follow, because two persons have the same name, and have each a father and brother who bear the same names, that they must therefore necessarily be the same whereby it manifestly appears that Mohammed well knew and asserted that Moses preceded Jesus several ages. And the commentators accordingly fail not to tell us, that there had passed about one thousand eight hundred years between Amran the father of Moses and Amrean the father of the Virgin Mary: they also make them the sons of different persons; the first, they say, was the son of Yeshar, or Izhar (though he was really his brother) the son of Kahath, the son of Levi; and the other was the son of Matthan, whose genealogy they trace, but in a very corrupt and imperfect manner, up to David and thence to Adam. It must be observed that though the Virgin Mary is called in the Koran, the sister of Aaron, yet she is nowhere called the sister of Moses.”
(George Sale, The Koran, IX Edition of 1923, London, p. 38)
And from logon.org/english/s/p163.html, elucidating on the last sentence of the previous quote:
At verse 28, Muhammad makes a most important observation where he refers to Mary as Sister of Aaron. From Matthew and Luke we are given Christ’s lineage, which is from David in Matthew through to Solomon; and in Luke, through Nathan (see the paper Genealogy of the Messiah (No. 119)). Christ was of the line of Judah and both these lines are of Judah,** but in order to fulfil the expectations that the Messiah would be of two advents, the Messiah of Aaron and the Messiah of Israel, lineage from Levi is required.** The Judaic lineages alone would not be sufficient to complete those expectations, which we know were widespread from the writings of the Sons of Zadok. Further, the prophecy in Zechariah 12:10-14 shows that when they look on me; the one they pierced the houses of his lineage appear to be of David through Nathan (v. 12) and Levi through Shimei (v. 13). As Mariam’s cousin, Elizabeth, was wife to Zechariah, high priest of the Division of Abijah, and because of the limitations imposed upon Levites by Numbers, Elizabeth and, probably therefore, Mariam (Mary) would have been full Levite, in the case of Elizabeth and part Levite in the case of Mariam, allowing Zechariah to be fulfilled and Christ to be the Messiah of Aaron and Israel. Far from being an error or a generalised term, Muhammad’s statement is corroboration of this prophecy in Zechariah, perhaps showing that he had also read and understood Zechariah.
Hope that helps