According to the Church ( catholic.com/tracts/adam-eve-and-evolution ):
“the Catholic faith obliges us to hold that souls are immediately created by God" (Pius XII, Humani Generis 36). So whether the human body was specially created or developed, we are required to hold as a matter of Catholic faith that the human soul is specially created; it did not evolve, and it is not inherited from our parents, as our bodies are.”
Furthermore Pope Pius XII declared that ( catholic.com/quickquestions/is-my-friends-theory-that-god-created-more-than-one-set-of-first-parents-heretical ):
“original sin, which proceeds from a sin actually committed by an individual Adam and which, through generation, is passed on to all and is in everyone as his own. (HG 37)”
But then when did we get human souls? As cavemen? As hunter-gatherers? When we developed agriculture? During the time of the ancient Greeks? How did we get original sin then? Did a caveman or hunter-gatherer defy God?
And if our bodies were created through evolution, where would that fit the Garden of Eden? We were supposed to start in a “perfect” state and then become “fallen”. How could a caveman or any previous state of humanity be considered “perfect” or to have taken place within the Garden of Eden?
It all seems to start becoming quite improbable, unless we take the story completely symbolically and just see a “perfect” state as one before advanced society or technology, where tribe were relatively peaceful and lived good lives that later became impossible with cities and big governments (like the ancient Roman government) and advanced technology. But even before then, there must have been death and infirmity. So I don’t see how this could be accurately described as the time of the Garden of Eden.
I suppose we could see man’s form and spirit as residing in a completely different celestial “place”, which when fallen would have been put into our already prepared and evolving, but physically similar homo-sapien bodies. But does this not seem like too much effort to justify the story of the Garden?
Related to this question is another. What does the Church say about the creation of human souls? Does God create every human soul individually? What about genetics? It’s been obvious, even before the scientific discovery of genes, that we inherit not only physical characteristics from our parents, but also personality traits. How does this jive with the Church’s stance on the creation of souls? I am not saying we are only physical beings, but these physical characteristics obviously have a huge impact on how we will look and act. That would seem to involve the soul in some way.