Not in the US, but I feel honour-bound (since I'm currently doing some postgrad work here) to chime in with what an amazing university Oxford is to be Catholic in. In large part because the university has houses of the Jesuits, Cappuchin Franciscans, Dominicans, Benedictines, and Oratorians (whom Newman himself, who of course is from Oxford, established in Britain). The opportunities for the sacraments, adoration, benediction, offices, Catholic social clubs, prayer groups, lecture series, debates, and workshops are abundant and top-quality.
Some notable Catholic almuni include, besides Blessed John Henry Newman, St. Thomas More, St. Edmund Campion, J.R.R. Tolkien, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Cardinal Manning, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus, William of Occam, and deathbed convert Oscar Wilde.