Fatwa's, by whose authority?

I have asked this a couple of times without answer. I would appreciate any direction so I may further understand how the Muslim religion is guided.

1- Who is authorized to issue Fatwa’s?

2- What/Who gives them that authority?

Answers to these two questions will probably spark others.

Thanks

B

In the Name of Allah.

  1. A Mufti is the one authorised to issue a fatwa.

  2. To become a mufti, you have to graduate from certain Islamic Schools and colleges, where you pass certain courses, ensuring you know certain sciences, and are well versed in Arabic and the like. When you graduate you are given an “Ijaazah” or a “permission” which authorises you to give fatwas.

The Ijaazah also has the details regarding what subjects you are allowed to give fatwas on, hence limiting you to the knowledge you have acquired.

Hope that helped.

Peace,

Urooj.

[quote=Urooj]In the Name of Allah.

  1. A Mufti is the one authorised to issue a fatwa.

  2. To become a mufti, you have to graduate from certain Islamic Schools and colleges, where you pass certain courses, ensuring you know certain sciences, and are well versed in Arabic and the like. When you graduate you are given an “Ijaazah” or a “permission” which authorises you to give fatwas.

The Ijaazah also has the details regarding what subjects you are allowed to give fatwas on, hence limiting you to the knowledge you have acquired.

Hope that helped.

Thank you so much for the answer. It has helped tremendously. Now if you will indulge me I have a follow-up.

1- So that I may know which Fatwa’s are legitimate can you tell me where I can find out which schools and courses are approved.

2-OR is there something in an Imam’s title that indicates this “Ijaazah” like MD for doctor? Or would he just be called a Mufti?

3-If he is a Mufti then whatever he issues is Islamic and are all Muslims bound to comply?

When I next see a Fatwa I would like to know if it is approved.

I assume this is a pretty simple request?

Thanks,

B
[/quote]

[quote=Urooj]In the Name of Allah.

  1. A Mufti is the one authorised to issue a fatwa.

  2. To become a mufti, you have to graduate from certain Islamic Schools and colleges, where you pass certain courses, ensuring you know certain sciences, and are well versed in Arabic and the like. When you graduate you are given an “Ijaazah” or a “permission” which authorises you to give fatwas.

The Ijaazah also has the details regarding what subjects you are allowed to give fatwas on, hence limiting you to the knowledge you have acquired.

Hope that helped.

Peace,

Urooj.
[/quote]

Sorry, posted poorly:

Thank you so much for the answer. It has helped tremendously. Now if you will indulge me I have a follow-up.

1- So that I may know which Fatwa’s are legitimate can you tell me where I can find out which schools and courses are approved.

2-OR is there something in an Imam’s title that indicates this “Ijaazah” like MD for doctor? Or would he just be called a Mufti?

3-If he is a Mufti then whatever he issues is Islamic and are all Muslims bound to comply?

When I next see a Fatwa I would like to know if it is approved.

I assume this is a pretty simple request?

Thanks,

B

[quote=iamrefreshed]Sorry, posted poorly:

Thank you so much for the answer. It has helped tremendously. Now if you will indulge me I have a follow-up.

1- So that I may know which Fatwa’s are legitimate can you tell me where I can find out which schools and courses are approved.

2-OR is there something in an Imam’s title that indicates this “Ijaazah” like MD for doctor? Or would he just be called a Mufti?

3-If he is a Mufti then whatever he issues is Islamic and are all Muslims bound to comply?

When I next see a Fatwa I would like to know if it is approved.

I assume this is a pretty simple request?

Thanks,

B
[/quote]

  1. Usually any Islamic scholar who has his Dr degree in Fiqh (jusrisprudence) from any of the well know Islamic Universities is a Mufti.

  2. He would usually be called a Mufti.

  3. This is a big NNOO! He must provide proof from the Quran or sayings of the prophet peace be upon him to back up his fatwa.

Emad - so what you are saying is that there is no progression or growth of teaching? Obviously the Qu’ran has no teaching in it on airplanes or movies or any other modern innovation, so given what you have said, “He must provide proof from the Quran or sayings of the prophet peace be upon him to back up his fatwa.” then there can be no official condemnation or approveal of these things as they could be referenced in neither the Qu’ran nor the sayings of the prophet.

This would seem to say that the only Fatwa’s that could be aproved are those which are identical in meaning to the Qu’ran, differing only in wording.

greetings.

[quote=iamrefreshed]I have asked this a couple of times without answer. I would appreciate any direction so I may further understand how the Muslim religion is guided.

1- Who is authorized to issue Fatwa’s?
[/quote]

[quote=Urooj]1. A Mufti is the one authorised to issue a fatwa.
[/quote]

this doesn’t exactly answer the question. a muftee is someone who gives fataawaa (pl. of fatwaa). it’s a title that literally means “one who gives fatwaa”. a fatwaa is a religious ruling given by a scholar who is capable of doing so.

in order to give fataawaa, a scholar must be one with enough knowledge to make ijtihaad, which is a word derive from the arabic root word jahada - to struggle, to strive (it’s the same root word that the word jihaad is derived from). ijtihaad means effort, extertion, endeavor. here it can be taken to mean examining the evidences and coming up with a ruling for any given situation. a scholar who is capable of doing this should have good knowledge of the various evidences and differences of opinions regarding various issues. he should at the very least have basic knowledge of hadeeth, which ones are authentic, which ones are weak and which ones are fabricated.

[quote=iamrefreshed]2- What/Who gives them that authority?
[/quote]

[quote=Urooj]2. To become a mufti, you have to graduate from certain Islamic Schools and colleges, where you pass certain courses, ensuring you know certain sciences, and are well versed in Arabic and the like. When you graduate you are given an “Ijaazah” or a “permission” which authorises you to give fatwas.

The Ijaazah also has the details regarding what subjects you are allowed to give fatwas on, hence limiting you to the knowledge you have acquired.
[/quote]

it’s not necessary for a muftee to have graduated from an islamic school or college. traditional learning never took place in these types of institutions. going to these types of schools are stepping stones to attaining the amount of knowledge and understanding you need to be able to be considered muftees.

ijaazah is good, but it isn’t a necessity. sis urooj, if you’re able to read arabic, i would recommend you read the section on ijaazah in al-baa’ith al-hatheeth ikhtisaar 'uloom al-hadeeth by al-'allaamah ahmad shaakir. it’s ahmad shaakir’s notes on a book by al-haafidh ibn katheer on the sciences of hadeeth.

[quote=iamrefreshed]1- So that I may know which Fatwa’s are legitimate can you tell me where I can find out which schools and courses are approved.
[/quote]

usually, the fatwaas that come from the permanent committee for religious rulings in saudia arabic are legitimate. there are also the fatwaas that can be found on islam-qa.com that are pretty reliable. there’s no real way to tell if fataawaa are legitimate except to look for the proofs and evidences they present to support their ruling and not all fataawaa mention these things. some just mention the ruling and then don’t mention their evidences.

also, just because someone graduated from a particular course or school does not mean that they are qualified to teach, let alone issue fatwaa. there are many who graduated from the various islamic institutes around the world who aren’t deserving of the position of muftee.

[quote=iamrefreshed]2-OR is there something in an Imam’s title that indicates this “Ijaazah” like MD for doctor? Or would he just be called a Mufti?
[/quote]

there isn’t any real way to tell if someone is qualified by looking at their title. that’s because the titles given to scholars are so loosely used nowadays. people are called “shaikh” when they don’t even deserve it. so many others are called “muftee” or “mullaa” and its the same deal, they don’t deserve it.

the only real way to tell if a person is qualified is by looking at the knowledge they possess, through their writings, lectures and various other things. do they continually quote from the Quran and the statements of those who matter (i.e., prophet muhammad, his companions and the scholars of ahl as-sunnah from the early generations and those who followed them)? or is he continually giving opinions from the top of his head without proofs and evidences?

[quote=iamrefreshed]3-If he is a Mufti then whatever he issues is Islamic and are all Muslims bound to comply?
[/quote]

no. you’re not bound to comply. a ruling from a muftee is not like the ruling from a judge. the ruling from a judge must be carried out, whereas the ruling from a muftee may be taken or left according to the evidences provided in it.

Thank you r.gonzales. That was a very detailed reply. I did not realize that fataawaa were not controled more strictly. I assumed they were.

I guess then, Muslims must follow their heart when they are issued?

My Catholic religion uses a centrally guided authority if you were not aware. I think it makes things more orderly.

[quote=But for Grace]Emad - so what you are saying is that there is no progression or growth of teaching? Obviously the Qu’ran has no teaching in it on airplanes or movies or any other modern innovation, so given what you have said, “He must provide proof from the Quran or sayings of the prophet peace be upon him to back up his fatwa.” then there can be no official condemnation or approveal of these things as they could be referenced in neither the Qu’ran nor the sayings of the prophet.

This would seem to say that the only Fatwa’s that could be aproved are those which are identical in meaning to the Qu’ran, differing only in wording.
[/quote]

No there defenitely is progression. That is exactly what Fiqh is. The Mufti would take the situation at hand and tie it to a verse in the Quran or a Hadith.

There are muftis giving fatwas for the members of Al-Qaeda and in Egypt don´t put in agree if the suicides are good or bad, this is said by Al-Azhar.
The lak of magisterium in islam is a very sad thing because we are paying the others.

[quote=iamrefreshed]I guess then, Muslims must follow their heart when they are issued?
[/quote]

no, muslims are required to follow the proofs and the evidences found in the Quran and in prophet muhammad’s sunnah.

seeking knowledge is obligatory upon every muslim so they are able to distinguish the truth from the falsehoods. so that they are able to look at the varying opinions regarding certain issues and determine which one is the most correct.

those who cannot fulfill this obligation are given the allowance to follow a scholar they trust and see to be upon the truth. however, not everything this scholar says is to be taken and accepted unconditionally. that is because he is human and can make mistakes. whatever he says that is in accordance to the truth, then it is accepted, and whatever mistakes he makes, they’re left aside and not followed.

unfortunately, many muslims nowadays are willing to accept both the right and wrong from anyone… :frowning:

You can’t follow whatever you want. God gave humans logic and reasoning for a reason. We use education to determine what is right and wrong.

wa salam

[quote=r.gonzales]no, muslims are required to follow the proofs and the evidences found in the Quran and in prophet muhammad’s sunnah.

seeking knowledge is obligatory upon every muslim so they are able to distinguish the truth from the falsehoods. so that they are able to look at the varying opinions regarding certain issues and determine which one is the most correct.

those who cannot fulfill this obligation are given the allowance to follow a scholar they trust and see to be upon the truth. however, not everything this scholar says is to be taken and accepted unconditionally. that is because he is human and can make mistakes. whatever he says that is in accordance to the truth, then it is accepted, and whatever mistakes he makes, they’re left aside and not followed.

unfortunately, many muslims nowadays are willing to accept both the right and wrong from anyone… :frowning:

[/quote]

So these would be examples of Fataawaa that a good Muslim should NOT follow? Even though they were issued by Mufti and they claim backed up by the Qur’an?

“On March 27, Syria’s Grand Mufti Sheikh Ahmad Kaftaro, the country’s top Muslim religious authority, called for suicide bombings against US and British troops in Iraq.”

Al-Azhar, Egypt’s most prestigious Islamic institution, issued a fatwa (religious decree) this month that it is the duty of all Muslims to defend Iraq against foreign invasion. “If the enemy descends on the land of Muslims, jihad becomes an Islamic obligation … because our Arab and Islamic community will be facing a new Crusade targeting our land, honor, faith and nation,” it declared…

"Ulema belonging to various schools of thoughts describe Fidayee (suicide) attacks by Iraqis against coalition forces as in line with Sharia and say killed Fidayeen were “martyrs.”

[quote=iamrefreshed]So these would be examples of Fataawaa that a good Muslim should NOT follow? Even though they were issued by Mufti and they claim backed up by the Qur’an?

“On March 27, Syria’s Grand Mufti Sheikh Ahmad Kaftaro, the country’s top Muslim religious authority, called for suicide bombings against US and British troops in Iraq.”
[/quote]

there are many fataawaa issued by scholars more qualified than this one stating that suicide bombings are not allowed in islam. see: fatwa-online.com/worship/jihaad/jih004/index.htm

[quote=iamrefreshed]Al-Azhar, Egypt’s most prestigious Islamic institution, issued a fatwa (religious decree) this month that it is the duty of all Muslims to defend Iraq against foreign invasion. “If the enemy descends on the land of Muslims, jihad becomes an Islamic obligation … because our Arab and Islamic community will be facing a new Crusade targeting our land, honor, faith and nation,” it declared…
[/quote]

this fatwaa is in line with what islamic law allows. if a muslim country is being attacked, it is the obligation of that country, as well as other muslim countries who are able, to defend it against the enemy. there is nothing wrong with what’s quoted here, in and of itself. every country has the right to defend itself and have its allies come to its aid.

[quote=iamrefreshed]"Ulema belonging to various schools of thoughts describe Fidayee (suicide) attacks by Iraqis against coalition forces as in line with Sharia and say killed Fidayeen were “martyrs.”
[/quote]

i don’t know who these scholars (ulamaa, pl. of aalim, which means scholar) are, but see the link above. as for calling them martyrs, then to apply this name upon someone in an absolute manner (i.e., that he is a martyr for sure) islamically is not allowed, unless that person has been deemed to be a martyr by Allah and His messenger. the most we can say is that “he is a shaheed, inshaa’allah” - meaning, “he is a martyr, if Allah willed.”

This is why there is so much confusion. You just tossed away the words of Syria’s top Muslim religious authority". How is he not qualified?

I can appreciate defending oneself and admire that Muslim’s would defend eachother. Would that they did that before Iraq was invaded then it wouldn’t had to have been done by the Coalition forces.

I am very distressed to know that someone who appears to be a peaceful Muslim believes it is OK to kill those Coalition forces!:bigyikes:

[quote=iamrefreshed]This is why there is so much confusion. You just tossed away the words of Syria’s top Muslim religious authority". How is he not qualified?

I can appreciate defending oneself and admire that Muslim’s would defend eachother. Would that they did that before Iraq was invaded then it wouldn’t had to have been done by the Coalition forces.

I am very distressed to know that someone who appears to be a peaceful Muslim believes it is OK to kill those Coalition forces!:bigyikes:
[/quote]

Please visit the WhyIslam forum and go to the Current events section. A member named Ali Free has posted a number of photos of how peaceful these mostly Christian peaceful coalition forces are. What ever happened to turning the other cheek?

Scholars have difference of opinion regarding suicide bombs against invading forces. Some scholars say it is allowed, while others say it is not. However the evidence of those who don’t allow it is stronger than those who do.

[quote=Emad]Please visit the WhyIslam forum and go to the Current events section. A member named Ali Free has posted a number of photos of how peaceful these mostly Christian peaceful coalition forces are. What ever happened to turning the other cheek?
[/quote]

I just visited the site Emad. That is absolute GARBAGE! Three pictures. Two show prisoners and one shows a search. How do you know who the people are or the circumstances? I’ll answer for you, YOU DON"T! Those may be captured terrorists, YOU DON’T KNOW!

I am now fairly certain you have two faces. First is your “peaceful Islam” face and the other is your “kill the infidel face”

You blatantly stated that it is OK to kill Coalition forces. I don’t know if someone can be reported on these forums but I will find out.

Please take your evil elsewhere.

[quote=iamrefreshed]I just visited the site Emad. That is absolute GARBAGE! Three pictures. Two show prisoners and one shows a search. How do you know who the people are or the circumstances? I’ll answer for you, YOU DON"T! Those may be captured terrorists, YOU DON’T KNOW!

I am now fairly certain you have two faces. First is your “peaceful Islam” face and the other is your “kill the infidel face”

You blatantly stated that it is OK to kill Coalition forces. I don’t know if someone can be reported on these forums but I will find out.

Please take your evil elsewhere.
[/quote]

Iamrefreshed Islam teaches us to defend ourselves. If any army invades any country they have the right to defend themselves am I wrong? This is something that almost the entire world agress upon. If a man invaded my house I would surely defend myself. Or do you expect me to jump for joy because he invaded me claiming to liberate me and give me freedom?

[quote=Emad]Iamrefreshed Islam teaches us to defend ourselves. If any army invades any country they have the right to defend themselves am I wrong? This is something that almost the entire world agress upon. If a man invaded my house I would surely defend myself. Or do you expect me to jump for joy because he invaded me claiming to liberate me and give me freedom?
[/quote]

Emad, When you use religion as a base for war you are doomed.

In my church, and every Catholic church in the world we have a part of our Mass called the Prayer of the Faithful. This is when we ask God to hear our prayer and, as a group, say “Lord, hear our prayer”. I tell you this because every Sunday, in my church, we hear

" Lord we pray for peace in the Middle East" and we respond

“Lord hear our prayer”

I’ll not debate politics with you Emad. I’m not smart enough and you are not old enough.

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