I have a follow up question as it pertains to my original thread.
First, an electronically transposed document I implicitly reference.
Second, a fragment from speech by a Pope I implicitly reference.
Third, my question(s).
Below is a document issued by the Holy Office against heliocentrism.
Assessment made at the Holy Office, Rome, Wednesday, 24 February 1616, in the presence of the Father Theologians signed below.
Proposition to be assessed:
(1) The sun is the center of the world and completely devoid of local motion.
Assessment: All said that this proposition is foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts many places the sense of Holy Scripture, according to the literal meaning of the words and according to the common interpretation and understanding of the Holy Fathers and the doctors of theology.
(2) The earth is not the center of the world, nor motionless, but it moves as a whole and also with diurnal motion.
Assessment: All said that this proposition receives the same judgement in philosophy and that in regard to theological truth it is at least erroneous in faith.
Petrus Lombardus, Archbishop of Armagh.
Fra Hyacintus Petronius, Master of the Sacred Apostolic Palace.
Fra Raphael Riphoz, Master of Theology and Vicar-General of the Dominican Order.
Fra Michelangelo Segizzi, Master of Sacred Theology and Commissary of the Holy Office.
Fra Hieronimus de Casalimaiori, Consultant to the Holy Office.
Fra Thomas de Lemos.
Fra Gregorius Nunnius Coronel.
Benedictus Justinianus, Society of Jesus.
Father Raphael Rastellius, Clerk Regular, Doctor of Theology.
Father Michael of Naples, of the Cassinese Congregation.
Fra Iacobus Tintus, assistant of the Most Reverend Father Commissary of the Holy Office.
Cardinal Bellarmine issued Galileo a letter two days later stating that he was not to teach heliocentrism under penalty of jail. He was eventually convicted of Heresy by the Inquisition in 1633 and placed under house arrest for the remaining years of his life.
As an additional point of consideration for my impending inquiry, Pope John Paul II issued an apology in October of 1992 saying the theologians who condemned Galileo did not recognize the formal distinction between the Bible and its interpretation. “This led them unduly to transpose into the realm of the doctrine of the faith, a question which in fact pertained to scientific investigation”.
My Inquiry: Concerning Galileo’s conviction of Heresy, who was wrong, what were they wrong about? and (most importantly) how is their wrongness separate from the dogmatic “Infallibility of the Church”?
As a plea to forum moderators: This question is not a disrespectful “gotcha!”. It is genuinely asked in good faith within a forum with the assigned purpose of apologetics in a Catholic context. It might be prudent to place an official response to this question (or one framed in a similar way) as a “sticky” as I’m reasonably certain I’m not the first nor will be the last to ask about Galileo.