Does “law” in this context just mean moral stuff like the 10 commandments? …or does it also include metaphysical laws like “God is omnipotent”, “There is only one God”, etc.?
I think it means knowing to trust God in the crisis of existence despite my discomfort and distress at the circumstances He allows me.
I think it means not fearing despite enmity from elsewhere.
This took (so far) a very long series of acts and events by God including much semi-informal instruction.
Well, to believe in the true God, and therefore affirm His attibutes pertains to the First Commandment. So, for instance, one must beleive that God exists, and is a remunerator (cf. Heb. 11:6). So, yes, the Ten Commandments are the Law written on the heart, but it includes the precept of Faith, which means that a person must believe in God, and in the true God.
It means that the righteous walk by faith and not by law.
This comes from the New Covenant prophecy of Jer 31:33-34, quoted in Hebrews 8 &10. It mean that God, through grace, will justify man, will make Him right, something man couldn’t do on his own by mere obedience of the law. The Church teaches that the law had already been written on man’s hearts to begin with, but due to the fall and man’s distancing from God, man’s heart was hardened, his conscience dimmed and corrupted. Man had become distanced even from his own self. Now by the new covenant, man’s relationship with God was to be restored, and so God could do a work in him of justification unto salvation. He would ‘place his law in their hearts and write in on their minds’, as He truly became their God again, paraphrasing Jer 31:33-34.
But what does this look like, this change God wants to make in us; what does it consist of and how is it accomplished? We’re to be transformed into God’s own image, God, Who is love. This is why the greatest commandments are what they are, to love God with our whole heart, soul, mind, and strength and our neighbor as ourselves. This, love, is what man’s true justice/ holiness/righteousness consists of, and this begins, on man’s part as a response to grace, with faith, the restoration of that relationship whereby man begins to commune with God again. Love fulfills the law:
"Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for whoever loves others has fulfilled the law. 9The commandments, “You shall not commit adultery,” “You shall not murder,” “You shall not steal,” “You shall not covet,” and whatever other command there may be, are summed up in this one command: “Love your neighbor as yourself.” 10Love does no harm to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law." Rom 13:8
Fhansen has said it all.
Can I add:
When we refer to the Old Covenant, we mean the Mosaic Covenant. (there are others too).
Moses went up on Mt. Sinai and God gave the 10 commandments written ON STONE. This is called The Law.
The Israelites said they would keep the law, but, of course, they could not. Man is inclined toward evil.
As Fhansen explained perfectly, the idea is apparent in the O.T. that God desires our hearts and not our sacrifices. The New Covenant is found in Jeremiah 31 and this covenant will be written in our HEARTS - no longer on stone. This is called Grace. (that would need more explaining but no can do here!)
It now becomes easier for us to maintain the 10 commandments. Why? Because Jesus has shown us the way, He had died for us, we can love Him. This makes it easier to adhere to the rules because we are now friends of God and WANT to please Him.
To me this is the core of christianity. Just think: God came to us in person to make it possible for all to be close to Him. It’s mind boggling!