Just wondering how these two things work together. We believe that God is absolutely immutable and eternal, which is to say, timeless.
We also believe that God keeps all things in existence and co-operates immediately in every act of his creatures. That is, no thing can be without being dependent for it’s being on God and no creature can proceed to the act unless it is first moved by Him.
A common argument against God’s immutability is the following:
A perfect being is immutable and not subject to change.
A perfect being knows everything.
A being that knows everything always knows what time it is.
A being that always knows what time it is, is subject to change.
Ergo, a being that knows everything is not immutable.
This particular argument is not really an issue, since it does not relates to an action of God but only his knowledge, which is infinite and since his mode of existence is eternity, every present moment is simultaneous with our present, ergo, God knows what time it is everytime not successively but in a single non-successive now.
However, what if the argument is modified to say the following?
God upholds and moves all temporal things in existence.
Temporal things are always changing over time.
God is not always upholding and moving the same things.
Ergo, a being that upholds and moves temporal things is not immutable/timeless.