history of qur`an


#1

this is an answer to the website (jk the thread in which a man is cutting an ebook and paste it here without letting us discuss :smiley: )
shall we start and give authinthucated proofs one by one in short statement and when we finish one we discuss others ? this is what forum mean ,ppl need to understand difference between a website and forum :wink:


#2

:yawn:…I dropped in to put you on ignore…thought:yawn: I’d save you the trouble of replying…:sleep:


#3

Ahmad, no offense intended my friend, but why are you here?

Would you like to join the Catholic Church?


#4

Fine, that history begins with the first revelation to Mohammad. Give an authenticated proof of who/what gave it to him?


#5

In everyone of your other posts you ask a question and it is answered, yet you do not hear what we say. You don’t address the response if you can’t answer it, but repeat something you said earlier.


#6

if the question out of topic ,i`m free to answer it or not :slight_smile:


#7

the quran has been changed. it is a fact.

I do not have any proof with me at the time, but I read from a member who said they did, and if you want I can ask them to show me :slight_smile:


#8

as no body wanna discuss ,i will cut and paste :smiley:
Origins Of The Arabic Script

As mentioned earlier, Mingana claimed ignorance about the evolution of the Arabic script and the presence of an Arabic alphabet during the advent of Islam. He then went on to say that in Makkah and Madinah, the written language “must have been” either Syriac or Hebrew. As for Luxenberg, he claims that:

When the Koran was composed, Arabic did not exist as a written language; thus it seemed evident to me that it was necessary to take into consideration, above all, Aramaic, which at the time, between the 4th and 7th centuries, was not only the language of written communication, but also the lingua franca of that area of Western Asia.

As far as the history of Arabic as a written language is concerned, it is best depicted by the following pre-Islamic as well as early post-Islamic Arabic inscriptions that show the progressive development of the Arabic script. The inscriptions below show that the Arabic script before the advent of Islam clearly had a well-developed alphabet.
Raqush Inscription (Jaussen-Savignac 17): The Earliest Dated Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription (267 CE).
Healey and Smith have hailed it as the earliest dated Arabic document.
Jabal Ramm Inscription: A Fourth Century Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription.
This inscription is the second oldest so far discovered in the Arabic alphabet after the Raqush inscription. The grammar in this inscription is straightforward classical Arabic.

A Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription At Umm Al-Jimal.


#9

Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek, Syriac & Arabic From 512 CE.
As the name suggests, it is a trilingual inscription. The Arabic, though, does not translate the Greek but merely lists six names, not all of which are mentioned in the Greek.

Jabal Usays Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription From 528 CE.
This is the only pre-Islamic Arabic inscription with historical content.
Harran Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription From 568 CE.
A Greek-Arabic bilingual inscription from Harran, near Damascus, Syria.

[c. 4 AH].

Also see inscriptions ** and [C]. These set of inscriptions are from Mount Sal‘ near Madinah. They have been dated to c. 4 AH using internal evidence.[14] The monumental script (i.e., Kufic) in the above inscriptions is quite interesting. Grohmann compares the script of the inscriptions with those in the early Kufic Qur’anic manuscripts. He says that the resemblance is “very striking.”[15]

These inscriptions detailed above provide ample evidence of a well articulated Arabic alphabet and are sufficient to refute the speculative assumptions of Mingana and Luxenberg. Furthermore, Bellamy commenting on the inscriptions from Jabal Ramm, Umm al-Jimal and Harran says:

Anyone who takes a close look at these inscriptions and compares them with the sample of Koran... will discern a great many letterforms that have not been changed at all, or very little, in the sixteen hundred years that have elapsed since the earliest one was written.[16]**

#10

We should also point out that Nabia Abbott also refuted the arguments of Mingana using the earliest known Arabic papyrus PERF No. 558 [22 AH] originating from Egypt. If Arabic was indeed so primitive in its homeland during the advent of Islam, as claimed by Mingana, how can one rationalize its practical use in Egypt in such a short time and that too in a well-developed cursive script? Abbott says:
The condition of Arabic writing in Muhammad’s time is indicated by PERF No. 558 (our plates iv-v), an Arabic papyrus of the reign of ‘Umar dated AH 22 and written in a fairly well developed manuscript hand in the distant province of Egypt, where Greek and Coptic were the written languages in general use. If written Arabic was so primitive and rare in its own homeland at the time of Muhammad’s death, how do we account for its practical use in Egypt only a short dozen years after that event? Again to grant the incomplete development of orthography would give us reason to suspect only the orthographic accuracy of early Qur’anic editions but not the possibility of their existence. In this connection it is interesting to note that nowhere in the traditions of the earliest transmission of the Qur’an is there any hint of serious orthographic or vowel difficulties; rather it is the differences in the Arabic tribal dialects and differences arising out of foreigner’s use of Arabic that seem to demand attention. The foregoing considerations lead one to believe that, if we allow for such common mistakes as writers and copyists are liable to make, the Arabic writers of Muhammad’s time and of the time of early Caliphs were able scribes capable of producing an acceptable edition of a written Qur’an despite the lack of all the improvements of modern written Arabic.[17]


#11
  1. Diacritical & Vowel Marks In Arabic From Syriac?

The diacritical (or skeletal) and vowel marks in early days of Islam were termed as nuqat (or dots). Skeletal dots differentiate the graphemes or the letters sharing in the same skeleton such as ح from ج. These are known as nuqat al-i‘jām and was familiar to the Arabs prior to the advent of Islam. The vowel marks or nuqat al-i‘rāb (or tashkīl), which can take the form of dots or conventional markings, were invented by Abu al-Aswad al-Duali (d. 69 AH / 688 CE) as we shall see below.[25] Let us now look into the issue of borrowing.

3.1 DIACRITICAL MARKS

It has been claimed by scholars, with some reservations, that the origins of diacritical and vowel marks originate from Syriac.[26] We have already seen the opinions of Mingana earlier.[27] Luxenberg opines that the diacritical dots for ܕ (dolath) and ܪ (rish) in Syriac may have served as the basis for the Arabic alphabet.[28]
In the Syriac alphabet, only two characters possess diacritical dots: ܕ (dolath) and ܪ (rish). By comparison the Arabic alphabet contains a total of fifteen dotted characters: ب، ت، ث، ج، خ، ذ، ز، ش، ض، ظ، غ، ف، ق، ن، ة. Imagining that the Arabs borrowed their multitudinous dots from the Syriac becomes a difficult proposition.[29] Moreover, we have clear pre-Islamic evidence of the usage of diacritical dots, e.g., the Raqush Inscription [267 CE] has diacritical points on the letters د، ش and ر; the Jabal Ramm Inscription [4th century CE] has diacritical points for the letters ج، ي and ن; and a curious inscription from Sakakah contains dots associated with Arabic letters ب، ت and ن.


#12

As we have seen earlier, Mingana had claimed that the origin of Arabic vowels is unknown to history and said that the opinions of Arab authors are too “worthless” to be quoted. Instead he advanced his own “opinion” (worthless or otherwise) by saying that the foundation of the Arabic vowels is based on the vowels of the Syrians. The only proof offered by Mingana was the similarity in the names of vowels in Syriac and Arabic. The fatha of Arabic corresponds in appellation and in sound to the Aramaic phtâha.[33]

Luxenberg, on the other hand, brings another dimension into the whole issue of vowel signs. He claims that the Arabic vowel system for the designation of the short vowels a, u and i by points, was after the model of the earlier syro-aramäische vocalization system. It is also claimed that the addition of dots for the short vowels at various locations was introduced in the reign of ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan [r. 685-705 CE]. Luxenberg applies his trial-and-error technique on the sab‘at ahruf of the Qur’an and connects it to the seven vowel signs of Syriac, the writing system developed by Jacob of Edessa [d. 708 CE]. Tabari [d. 310 AH / 923 CE] also mentions a tradition which says that there were five readings (i.e., khamsah ahruf) of the Qur’an, which Luxenberg suggests correspond to the five vowel signs of the Western Syrians.[34]

The common theme in the arguments of both Mingana and Luxenberg is their use of speculation from which they claim the Syriac origins of Arabic vowels. In other words, the Syriac vocalization system was already in place before the Arabs borrowed it from them. They differ only in their use of the sources. Mingana rejects the opinions of the Arab authors as “worthless” whereas Luxenberg is all too happy to embrace the opinion of an Arab author to support his hypothesis of Syriac origins.

Let us first take the case of Mingana. His only proof for the claim that the foundation of the Arabic vowels is based on the vowels of Syrians is that the fatha of Arabic corresponds in appellation and in sound to the Aramaic phtâha. Jacob of Edessa [d. 708 CE] was the first person to introduce vowels in Western Syria.


#13

to read more :thumbsup: :thumbsup: :thumbsup: :thumbsup: :thumbsup: :thumbsup: islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Text/Mss/vowel.html


#14

http://icecube.umd.edu/pretz/images/danceguy.gif

Just dancing around your own question.


#15

as i didnt see anyone posting a proof , i started to give mine :smiley:


#16

I asked for your proof…you don’t give any. You have no honor or dignity.


#17

are you blind? i have posted many proofs about origin of arabic and Qur`an


#18

No, I didn’t reead your cut & paste. I wanted YOU to tell me what gave muhammad his first revelation. http://icecube.umd.edu/pretz/images/danceguy.gif


#19

oh sorry this post is an answer to a cut and paste of another user :wink:
about your ask ,see islam-guide.com


#20

Oh sorry, was that another non-answer? http://icecube.umd.edu/pretz/images/danceguy.gif

How many questions will you avoid answering?
http://www.thewholetruth.com/counter.gif

http://www.thewholetruth.com/wolfsheep_sm.gif


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