How do we understand Apostolic Succession?

I am a Christian. My brother is marrying a devout Roman Catholic. One of our discussions has been on apostolic succession. I have tried to do some research on this but am having trouble finding answers to my specific questions. I hope that you can assist me in this.

My questions are:

  1. Matthias was chosen by God to replace Judas. This was a fulfillment of scripture. Eventually each of the twelve apostles died.
    a. Is there any biblical or historic documentation of who replaced each of these apostles as they died?
    b. Are there currently 12 apostles in the Roman Catholic church?
    i. If so, who are they?
    ii. If not, why only a single successor? (i.e. The Pope)

  2. I understand that Peter is proclaimed the first Pope.
    a. Is there any biblical or historic documentation that Peter was the first Pope?

  3. The Pope is to be celibate, yet Peter was married.
    a. Is there any biblical or historic documentation that Peter became celibate?

  4. The bible places Jerusalem as the beginning center of the church.
    a. Is there any biblical or historic documentation that the center moved to Rome?
    b. Is there any biblical or historic documentation that Peter was the Pope in Rome?

  5. 1 Timothy and Titus provide a list of qualifications for Elders/Bishops/Overseers (I see them as the same office, with differing titles.)
    a. Are these qualifications in place for Apostolic Succession?
    i. If so, why does the Pope not meet these requirements?
    ii. If not, how are these offices different? (i.e. What is there place in the current Roman Catholic church and how are they appointed?)

Links or References to documents would be sufficient. I do not mind doing the research, I just cannot find these answers.

I thank you in advance for your answers.

These links should give you the answers that you need. If you have any further questions or concerns that are not answered by this, please contact Catholic Answers directly.
**Recommended Reading:
**
[LIST]
*]Apostolic Succession
*]Peter’s Successors
*] - Original Catholic EncyclopediaApostolic Succession
*]Peter and the Papacy
*]Peter the Rock
*]Was Peter in Rome?
[/LIST]

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