The Muslims are to make war upon Christians and Jews, compel to convert to Islam, or pay extortion.
9:29 Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) **nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger ** (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
Here Muhammad and Muslim’s Allah is commanding his followers to make war upon Christians and Jews unless they converted to Islam or paid extortion (this is jizyah). It is not a defensive verse. It is completely offensive. It Clearly asks muslims to fight against Christians and Jews. And, they should pay Jizyah tax to submit to muslims to accept muslim superiority.
Now let’s read what the great Islamic scholars say about this verse. Ibn Kathir’s Quranic commentary for verse 9:29, pages 405 - 409, states:
The Order to fight People of the Scriptures until they give the Jizyah.
This honorable Ayah was revealed with the order to fight the People of the Book, after the Pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah’s religion in large numbers, and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims’ control. Allah commanded His Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination….
Paying Jizyah is a Sign of Kufr (Unbeliever) and Disgrace.
Muslim’s Allah said, until they pay the Jizyah, if they do not choose to embrace Islam, with willing submission, in defeat and subservience, and feel themselves subdued, disgraced, humiliated and belittled. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to honor the people of Dhimmah or elevate them above Muslims, for they are miserable, disgraced and humiliated.
Ibn Kathir, one of the greatest Muslim scholars ever, states that Christians and Jews that don’t embrace Islam are forced to submit in defeat, subservience, and feel themselves subdued, disgraced, humiliated and belittled. Muslims are not allowed to honor Christians and Jews, for they are miserable, disgraced, and humiliated.
A second reference for this verse comes from the “Reliance of the Traveler”, page 559 . This book is not just a commentary; rather it is “A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law.” It is based upon the Shafi’i school of Islamic law. (There are four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence, the Shafi’i being the largest of them). The book represents not just the work of a single scholar, but rather “represents a large collectivity of scholars….” It is not just a simple Quranic commentary; rather it is a foundational theological textbook.
The Caliph makes war upon the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, provided he has first invited them to enter Islam in faith and practice, and if they will not, then invited them to enter the social order of Islam by paying the non-Muslim poll tax Jizya…in accordance with the word of Allah Most High:
“Fight those who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day and who forbid not what Allah and His messenger have forbidden - who do not practice the religion of truth, being of those who have been given the Book - until they pay the poll tax out of hand and are humbled.” 9:29
The Caliph fights all other peoples until they become Muslim.