Church law says this:
Can. 1250 The days and times of penance for the universal Church are each Friday of the whole year and the season of Lent.
Can. 1251 Abstinence from meat, or from some other food as determined by the Episcopal Conference, is to be observed on all Fridays, unless a solemnity should fall on a Friday.
Can. 1253 The conference of bishops can determine more precisely the observance of fast and abstinence as well as substitute other forms of penance, especially works of charity and exercises of piety, in whole or in part, for abstinence and fast.
The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops stated:
Among the works of voluntary self-denial and personal penance which we especially commend to our people for the future observance of Friday, even though we hereby terminate the traditional law of abstinence binding under pain of sin, as the sole prescribed means of observing Friday, we give first place to abstinence from flesh meat.
Putting two and two together, it seems that there is an obligation to do something of abstinence or of christian piety on Friday of every year. It is not obligatory to abstain from meat, but abstention from meat can be substituted by some other good work or abstention of something else.
But it seems that THERE IS an obligation to do something on Friday.
However, I do not see the SERIOUSNESS of this obligation spelled out.