For example, if a Jewish person misses mass, did he sin?
They don’t sin. They’re invincibly ignorant from Catholic rules if they’re Jewish. (Barring rare exception.)
Does this go for everything? Including more extreme stuff like abortion?
For what purpose do you ask? Just curious. I’m happy you’re curious. But I’m curious as to why you’re curious.
The obligation to attend mass is an ecclesial law. Ecclesial laws apply to Catholics. They are disciplinary laws, instituted by and changeable by, the Church.
The moral law comes from God and applies to everyone.
Abortion is always grave matter against the fifth commandment. Sin requires more than grave matter, though, It also requires knowledge and free will. So while some things are always wrong, they may or may not be a sin-- that goes for a Catholic or a non-Catholic.
This is true, of course. But it’s based on the natural law obligation we have, in justice, to offer worship to the true God. Religion is a sub-virtue of justice.
This natural law obligation is binding on non-Catholics, while the specific application of this law (attending Holy Mass) is not.
So someone who refuses to worship God at all in whatever form is committing grave (but not necessarily mortal) sin.
You cannot say that. The Church does not specify any individuals or groups as being invincibly ignorant because the Church does not know who falls under invincible ignorance.
Only God knows.
It is a universal moral law that one ought to give time to God - as they understand him - in some fashion or another.
It is Church law that a person express this by participating in the celebration of the Mass on Holy Days.
So a person of another religion would not be sinning by not participating in the Mass.
If a person never gives any time or meditation or adoration towards God, then as a general lifestyle, it would be sinful to some degree.
I’ve always thought missing mass for someone of any religion is objectively a sin (even though subjectively they might not be aware of the truth or the obligation). We have a moral duty to worship God as God wants to be worshiped. If someone decides to convert, they’re not exempt from mass attendance until they are officially baptized. Once people recognize the true faith, they must conform to it, and that includes attending mass, even if they have not been formally brought into the Church.
There is no such thing.
No, that is not true.
Sorry, I meant someone who is Catholic and has left to become Protestant.
My trad Anglican jurisdiction-- rather high church–follows holy days of obligation. I think missing these, as well as Sunday service, without a compelling reason, is sinful.
It is no longer possible to defect from the Catholic Church. Once Catholic, always Catholic.
The obligation to Mass still binds such people.