It absolutely does NOT go against the Catholic faith.
We have a natural-law right to self-defense against unjust aggressors. (As a side issue, I’ve always been interested to know what would constitute a JUST aggressor, but not to digress.) Anyway, the United States, and I submit this is God’s Providence, has the closest thing to absolute freedom to keep and bear arms that exists on the face of this earth.
In past generations, it’s my observation that firearms ownership wasn’t even questioned. For those who chose to own them, it was just a fact of everyday life. Rural children commonly used .22 rifles.
I understand what is going on nowadays with the incidents of mass violence. It is a horrible thing. But the guns did not change so much as the people changed. People have forgotten God. That is what is causing the violence. Not the guns.