I began researching this question several years ago. This is what I found:
See Lucifer (Hebr. helel; Septuagint eosphoros, Vulgate Lucifer) in The Original Catholic Encyclopedia: Link to Lucifer, History of the Term: oce.catholic.com/index.php?title=Lucifer
The Latin word Lucifer seems to have been carried over from the Latin Vulgate to the KJV in Isaiah 14:12, and became a Protestant proof text for the fall of Satan. Though one can see Satan behind the actions of the king; Isaiah 14:12 seems to be speaking of a Babylonian king.
King James Version:
Isaiah 14:12: 12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
The word Lucifer is found in the Latin Vulgate 3 times, and is used as a description of Christ in 2 Peter 1:19. The word luciferum appears 2 times in the Latin Vulgate.
**2 Peter 1:19 **(Latin Vulgate) “et habemus firmiorem propheticum sermonem cui bene facitis adtendentes quasi lucernae lucenti in caliginoso loco donec dies inlucescat et lucifer oriatur in cordibus vestris”
Isaiah 14:12 (Latin Vulgate) “quomodo cecidisti de caelo lucifer qui mane oriebaris corruisti in terram qui vulnerabas gentes”
Job 11:17 (Latin Vulgate) “et quasi meridianus fulgor consurget tibi ad vesperam et cum te consumptum putaveris orieris ut lucifer”
Job 38:32 (Latin Vulgate) “numquid producis luciferum in tempore suo et vesperum super filios terrae consurgere facis”
Psalms 109(110):3 (Latin Vulgate) “tecum principium in die virtutis tuae in splendoribus sanctorum ex utero ante luciferum genui te”
The word Lucifer is found in the Douay-Rheims once in Isaiah 14:12.
Isaiah 14:12: How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, who didst rise in the morning? how art thou fallen to the earth, that didst wound the nations?
The word Lucifer is not found in the RSV or the NRSV.
Revised Standard Version
Isaiah 14:12 How you are fallen from heaven, O Day Star, son of Dawn! How you are cut down to the ground, you who laid the nations low!
New Revised Standard Version
**Isaiah 14:**12 How you are fallen from heaven, O Day Star, son of Dawn! How you are cut down to the ground, you who laid the nations low!
There was actually a bishop named Lucifer, known as Lucifer of Cagliari. He was born in the early part of the 4th century and died in 371 A.D. Link: newadvent.org/cathen/09410b.htm
The word lucifer is also used in Roman Rite liturgy’s Exultet chant in praise of the paschal candle and refers to Christ as the Morning Star (in Latin, lucifer, with lower-case initial): ". . . . . .Flammas eius lucifer matutinus inveniat:Ille, inquam, lucifer, qui nescit occasum:Christus Filius tuus,qui, regressus ab inferis, humano generi serenus illuxit,et vivit et regnat in saecula saeculorum."
Catholic Link: unamsanctamcatholicam.blogspot.com/2009/04/exsultet.html
From the research I have done, it appears that the Latin word lucifer actually became associated with Satan outside the Bible in works like Dante Alighieri’s Inferno and Milton’s Paradise Lost. Though, some ECF’s did adopt the association of lucifer with Satan.
So, I do not believe lucifer is a true Biblical name for Satan, though I could be wrong. Do you agree or disagree?
Please explain your answer and cite your sources.