Here is a bit from a response by an Eastern Orthodox adherent to Jimmy Akin’s “Why I’m Not Eastern Orthodox”
A more accurate description of the Filioque’s history is this: The ancient Church, both East and West, confessed that God the Father is the fountain of the God-head and source of the Trinity. The Son is eternally begotten of Him and the Holy Spirit eternally proceeds from Him. While these are the essential (substantial) relations between the Persons of the Trinity, there is another set of relations known as energetic relations. These are the relations of action between the Persons of the Trinity. For example, God has the power of creating essentially (as He is omniscient), but He became a Creator through actualizing this power in the act of creation. Some actions are eternal. God never began to do good, but doing good is an action, so that God energetically does God from all eternity. Likewise, the Holy Spirit energetically proceeds from the Father and the Son in the sense that the Father sends the Spirit through the Son as a manifestation of the unity of the Trinity. All ancient Christians, East and West, confessed this doctrine.
However, St. Augustine was unable to grasp the essence/energies distinction. Instead of making the visible appearances of God a disincarnate appearance of the Divine Word (as all the other Fathers had), St. Augustine made these “theophanies” symbolic representations of the untouchable and invisible essence of God. Because there was no distinction between the essence and energies of God, St. Augustine taught that the Holy Spirit eternally proceeded from the Father and the Son in essence. The Franks used St. Augustine as the framework through which they would read the rest of Christian theology and included it in the Creed at various Synods of theirs.
What would be the Catholic’s counter to these assertions?