Okay, Trekkies, you’re sent forward to the 24th ?] century aboard the Enterprise (whichever one) and the Captain is going to let you beam down to a new planet. But should you?
The transporter will dematerialize you, i.e., destroy your body as matter, turn you into an energy pattern, then rematerialize you down on the planet. It is safe to assume that your soul will separate from your body upon dematerializtion and the act of reassembling the body will not bring the soul back. I don’t know what to call the new, soulless you, especially since no one who experiences the transporter seems to be aware that they have lost their soul (which makes sense, actually).
Note as well that the transporter could be used as a copier. Chekhov got killed down on Planet X? No problem, we have his energy pattern stored in the transporter, we’ll make another hard copy.