- If causation exists, it exists necessarily (the idea of something causing causation is nonsense)
- If at least one thing exists, it exists necessarily (anything causing something else to exist must itself exist. Nothing comes from nothing)
- Time consists solely of a causal relationship between two states of at least one existent thing.
- Something composed solely of necessary things is itself necessary.
- Causation exists.
- At least one thing exists.
- Time is necessary.