I am not Jewish but believe the answer also, apart from the above, lies in the cold, hard reality of Imperial Rome. There were indeed two Jewish uprisings, one as cited when the Temple was destroyed by the Romans, and a second in the 130s A.D. when Simon Bar Kokhba rebelled against Rome. The greatest Jewish scholar of the age, Rabbi Akiva, believed Bar Kokhba to be the real messiah.
Simon was killed, Akiva tortured to death by the Romans, the flesh torn by his body with iron combs. Judea was thoroughly destroyed. Dio the Roman historian stated that 580,000 Jews died in fighting the Romans, and there arose a tradition that there were so many Jewish slaves for sale that the price dropped to less than a horse. How could anybody worship in the Holy Land in such conditions?
Some people forget that even before Christ, there already was a sizable Jewish diaspora living outside of Judea. Alexandria, now in Egypt, had a significant Jewish community, produced Philo the philosopher, and the Jewish community often found itself in feuds with the local Greek community in Alexandria which feuds the Romans had to squash.
Without a physical state, Judaism came to mean the study and observance of Torah. The person who did the most to accomplish this successfully was a Pharisaic rabbi, Ben Zakkai, the deputy head of the Sanhedrin, who was said to have been smuggled out of a besieged Jerusalem in a coffin.
Fate works in strange ways, but still to this day you will find Jewish students deep in debate in thought on the intricacies and meanings of the Torah, from kabbalistic schools to Reform.
I do not believe there is one nation under the sun whose history is as fascinating as that of the Jews. It defies belief.