Does the different language create a special kind of beauty . . .
Yes; it communicates mystery and sacredness, and contributes to a reverent atmosphere.
And isn’t a Latin Rite Mass more difficult to proselytize towards non-Catholics . . .
It has worked pretty well for over 1,500 years. Since the modern changes in the liturgy, Mass attendance has not increased, but in fact dramatically the opposite. I do not say the changes to the liturgy were the cause of the decrease in attendance, but neither has it been the ecumenical miracle that many thought it would be.
God is transcendent and mysterious and makes demands. I think most people realize this at some level and expect it. What keeps people away from the Church is not an “inaccessible” liturgy, but hard hearts, ignorance, cowardice, prejudice, bad examples, and the like.
And did Catholics have to learn basic Latin back in those days
Have to? No, but in “those days” even public schools included it as part of their curriculum. Nevertheless, a knowledge of Latin is not necessary fully to participate in the Mass.
and finally do you believe Latin helps one become more “Catholic” in a sense?
I wouldn’t say that, but praying with the official language of the Holy See is most certainly a bond of unity across centuries and cultures.