The answer to your question, as far as the juridical existence of the Catholic Church is concerned, requires a lengthy legal treatise.
This is an attempt for a short version, which shows the very “special” status of the Catholic Church:
(1) On the global level, the Catholic Church is endowed with a juridical (by fiction of law) existence as a State, complete with a territory (the Vatican City-State within the City of Rome), a government (the Pope, assisted by the Roman Curia), and people (the Pope and the clergy residing within Vatican’s territory).
As such, the Catholic Church (now existing “juridically” as a State by virtue of international law and comity) cannot be sued, like any other member-State of the United Nations, without its express consent. (By the way, the Vatican City-Sate, or interchangeably the Holy See, is the ONLY non-secular member-State of the UN).
(2) Let’s now consider the local or particular Catholic Churches. Under the Code of Canons, a “particular” Catholic Church is the Diocese/Archdiocese and not the parish Church nor the national aggrupation of dioceses, such as the Catholic Church in the U.S.A.
In all countries of the world, there are legal strictures for the organization, ownership, and management of “religious organizations” like a Church which, in turn, are endowed with a “personality,” albeit artificial, versus the natural personality of a human being. Again, these religious organizations are assuming a “juridical” existence.
Now, as an “artificial person,” a religious organization can interact with other persons, natural or artificial, and can acquire and possess properties. One interaction could be considered criminal, like what happened in the child abuse scandals.
In the U.S., and in most countries, the preferred method of acquiring such juridical personality followed by most, if not all, of the “particular” Catholic Churches is by “incorporation” under the various States.
Under these State laws, there is a provision recognizing an ancient practice of the Catholic Church to have its “particular” Churches (the dioceses) incorporate as “Corporation Soles,” i.e., the local Bishop/Achbishop “incorporates” himself as the sole representation of the Diocese/Archdiocese.
However, particular Churches are not immune to suits. If and when the diocese/archdiocese is sued, the Bishop/Archbishop answers the charges as the “Corporation Sole.”
I hope this helps.