This site has a table showing the readings throughout the year for Sundays. A couple of minor innaccuracies but overall correct.
I drew up a table for you showing the readings for the Common Masses here. These Masses are used for most saints. The first column shows the Latin word beginning the Introit by which these Masses are known. The table also shows the readings for the most common votive Masses of saints and the daily requiem. If memory serves me correctly, the Mass Ego autem is erased in the 1962 Missal because of the dropping of all vigils except for a few feasts. Ss. Peter and Paul have a vigil but that has a Proper Mass.
Unfortunately, I did not have time to draw up one for the Proper readings for saints, but I will definitely try to do so on Wednesday (even though I have this nasty habit of promising and forgetting, but I will try to remeber and you can always send a PM my way)
As regards the dating, the schema of most of the Temporale (i.e. the Proper of Seasons mostly the Masses of the Sunday etc.) is extremely ancient. Definitely dating back to St. Gregory the Great and some ascribe it to St. Jerome, but the problem with the latter is that then he must have drawn up a parallel set of OT readings. Most of the Sanctorale of course, is a different matter.
Trent did not make any changes, however, the Proper of Seasons was constantly overridden by the Proper of Saints. St. Pius V himself had a very spartan calendar and removed many many feasts but his succesors inserted them back in along with more. Many feasts were pepetually assigned to Sundays like the Most Holy Rosary (the first Sunday in October) or the Holy Name of Jesus. In addition a fair number of Sundays were ranked semi-doubles which meant that they were outranked by Double feasts, of which Pius V’s succesors added many. So the net result is that Sunday Mass Propers were not really celebrated on Sundays.
St. Pius X alleviated some of this confusion by giving semidouble Sundays preference over Double feasts. He also moved several of the moveable feasts assigned to Sundays to fixed dates. The only feasts allowed to be “perpetually assigned” to a Sunday (i.e. every year it occurs on a Sunday) was the Most Holy Trinity. To which Benedict XV added Christ the King for the last Sunday of October and extended the Feast of the Holy Famiily to the universal Church (Sunday within the Octave of Epiphany)
Of course, certain feasts still can outrank Sundays when they occur every x years: on around 10 Sundays* no feast takes precedence whatsoever, another 6** yield only to Doubles of the 1st Class and the rest outrank all except Double sof the 1st and 2nd Class.
*(of Pentecost, Lent, Holy Week and Low Sunday, and the 1st Sunday of Advent)
**(other Sundays of Advent and Pre Lent i.e. Septuagesima, etc.)