This is a great paper. Written from an Ismaili perspective, it shows how all Ismaili Muslims and Alawite Muslims, many Sufi Muslims and individuals from other Islamic traditions have come to accept that Christ was in fact crucified, and that Qur’an 4:157 can mean something very different from a denial of the crucifixion.
"The Isma‘ili position on the Crucifixion can be summarized as follows:
- Historically, Jesus was crucified and killed; there was no ‘substitute’.
- That which ‘appeared to them’ (shubbiha lahum) as being crucified was precisely
the body or human nature (nasut) of Jesus.
- Christ’s soul, as the manifestation of his divine nature (lahut), could not be killed
and this is what the Qur’an speaks of when it says “they killed him not, nor did
they crucify him”.
-The Bible and the Qur’an are thus in agreement over the Crucifixion. "
Compare to Matthew 10:28
“And fear ye not them that kill the body, and are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him that can destroy both soul and body in hell.”