Some “pre-capitalist” states had those qualities and some post-capitalist states don’t.
Capitalist states are definitely marked by all of those things, and where they don’t exist their absence is notable, and normally means a state of civil/political unrest.
Do you really think states like Iraq have “…a sense of national identity…”? Clearly that society, like many others, is tribal, not national.
They have a government and a parliamentary body, a national anthem, a Prime Minister, and are a member of the UN, a supranational body aimed at uniting nation states. As far as I can see they have all the markings of a nation-state that a feudal state wouldn’t. They aren’t a loose federation of tribes like the Mongol Empire or a territory organised through a system of vassals or anything.
And neither Pakistan nor Afghanistan have “clearly defined borders”.
Border disputes are very much a product of modern nation-states, which attempt to clearly define their borders. Feudal and Classical era states often didn’t have clearly defined or well guarded borders, there would be nothing clearly marking where one state ends and another begins, and no border guard stopping you passing between those two lines.
In some of the north African states, borders are just lines on a map, having no other reality.
This would have been common place throughout much of history. This only becomes a problem when the modern nation-state arises because such states demand clear borders.
And I would say a state that beheads women for adultery and forces “female circumcision” is definitely “culturally backward”.
I didn’t say otherwise, but I’m not sure that stops them from being modern nation-states. Nazi Germany was undoubtedly an effectively organized modern administration, and it committed atrocities.