A few questions-what non-Biblical evidence do we have for the martyrdom of the Apostles, Christian or non-Christian? Also, what of the Early Church Fathers was taught by which Apostle, and how do we know? Sorry for so many questions at once, any help is much appreciated:). Evidence for the martrydom of the Apostles seems to really help Christianity’s claims.
There are far more educated people on this forum than I but here is what I have found. There are letters (epistles) from some of the followers of the apostles that were preserved that revealed who they studied from and what the early Church passed on. Most notably Ignatius of Antioch and Polycarp, both of whom learned from John the Apostle. There was an early historian of the early Church known as Eusebius who documented much as well.
I would suggest the book “Four Witnesses” by John Bennett as a good resource concerning documentation of the early Church.
I need to correct this, Ignatius of Antioch and Clement of Rome were both disciples of Peter and Paul. Clement wrote one epistle that is very enlightening as well.