You’ll probably want to look into the Calvinism vs. Arminian debate, along with the various debates pertaining to the Order of Salvation, or Ordo Salutis. The two are very closely related.
Here’s a Wiki article on Ordo salutis, it’s kind of basic but there’s a ton of links and as far as I know it’s basically accurate.
These are some search results on Christian Forums (for all Christians, including sub-forums where only Catholics can go) that have something to do with Calvinism and Arminianism.
And if you want some more information on the history of the Calvinist-Arminian controversy, here are a few links.
Mainline Protestants here and now have a variety of points of view on the topic, and they don’t necessarily match up perfectly with their denominations’ perspective during or right after the Synod. (Methodists and the Reformed have been the most consistent, as far as I know). Speaking for the not-mainline crowd, it seems to me that unless you’re talking about Wesleyans, just about all other non-mainline Protestants fall into a broadly reformed tradition. As for the Synod of Dort (focusing on those few people in this group who know anything about it), I’d say most of them kind of agree with the conclusion but they don’t agree as much with the decision to condemn it and to a certain extent break fellowship with the Arminians. Expelling them from Holland (however briefly) and other persecutions associated with the decision are most certainly frowned upon.
For me personally, I’ve looked into the Articles of Remonstrance, the Five Points of Calvinism, and the historical narrative of the controversy pretty carefully. There were two things that surprised me in this process- one is that both Calvin and Arminius made some key changes to the form of their arguments throughout the controversy, and my impression was that Dort may have caused everyone to dig their heels in and prevent any further progress from being made. The second surprise was when I read the Articles of Remonstrance for the first time. They really aren’t that long, but as I’m reading through them, I couldn’t help but think if it didn’t say what it was, I would probably think this was standard Calvinist fare. I really had to look carefully in order to detect what the differences and points of controversy were, and even after I worked on understanding it more fully, I still had the impression that the differences were surprisingly technical and small. This is not the impression that you typically get when Calvinists and Arminians argue with each other, but that’s because both sides to an awful job of presenting the other side accurately and much of their time is spent on debating underlying philosophical points that don’t show up explicitly in any of the key documents, although they are implicit and they are important.
Does that give you something to work with? There’s probably some other directions you could go with the Order of Salvation thing, but this is part of that and it’s a really big one.