< In Galatians 2, Paul is not only calling Peter “Kephas” in order to illustrate his office as “the Rock.” Rather, Paul is actually employing a pun in Greek.
Notice, for example, how Paul switches between the name “Peter” (Gal 2:7-8) and
the name “Kephas” (Gal 1:18, 2:9, 2:11, & 2:14). His is no accident. For, while the name “Kephas” is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic “Kepha” (“Rock”),
it is ALSO the Greek word for “HEAD.” Thus, in Gal 2:14, when Paul boasts how
“I said to Kephas, in front of all,” what he’s REALLY saying is that ‘I even stood
up to the Head for the sake of the Gospel.’ This play on words would not be lost
on Paul’s original, Greek-speaking audience. Indeed, there would be no way for
them to miss it!
Notice, for example, how Paul only calls Simon Bar-Jonah “Peter” in Gal 2:7-8. Indeed, this is the ONLY TIME Paul ever uses the name “Peter” in his
writings. In all of Paul’s other references to Peter, he is always “Kephas” (1
Corinth 1:12, 3:22, 9:5, 15:5, Gal 1:18, 2:9, 2:11, & 2:14). So, why the change?
Because, if we notice, in Gal 2:7-8, Paul is not referring to Peter’s office of
headship, but rather to Peter’s PERSONAL apostolate to evangelize the Jews - an
apostolate which was EQUAL with Paul’s apostolate to the Gentiles. Yet, when
Paul wishes to show Peter as an authority, he is no longer “Peter” but “Kephas”
(BOTH “Rock” and “HEAD”): >