[quote="HabemusFrancis, post:13, topic:333183"]
You know, before he fell in with Hitler, Mussolini was not that bad of a fellow. He did many public works projects, and helped the poor of Italy. Sure he had his human rights abuses in the '20s, but not anywhere near Stalin or Hitler. He was just Hitlers fool in WW2 and I think most people at the time saw that....
But if Pius 9 was not correct ( or at least issued a correctible proclomation) would it then not have been a sin for an Italian Catholic to participate in Italian democracy?
As an American,I can see why an Italian in 1870s would want that. I can see why he would want a government that got its powers from the people, and was accountable to the people if they did not uphold the integrity of the office. I can see why he would want freedom of speech and assembly, and a strong system of checks and balances.
Then there is the Pope telling Italy that "NO! NO you may NOT live in a unified republic, you MUST have me as your Pope and your king!"
So would it be a sin for an Italian of the time to disobey him? For the record I think it is good now that Popes, instead of having the Papal States, run a "kingdom not of this world!"
1) Italy was not a Republic until after World War II (and by then Italian Catholics were able to participate for 17 years). By the end of the reign of Pius IX, Italy was a Kingdom ruled by King Vittorio Emmanuele II. Pius was not condemning republican rule, he was objecting to the seizure of the city of Rome (which was legally the property of the Holy See for over a millennium) by the King of Italy. Italy in 1870 (and even Italy today) was not America in 1776.
2) It certainly seems to have been a great boon to the Church to have been rid of the Papal States, but remember they were necessary in their time and place and whether or not we think the Pope ought to be running an independent State (which he still does) it was still immoral for the King and Garibaldi to wage a war of conquest against the city of Rome.